SYNERGISTIC ANTI-CANCER EFFECTS OF NATURAL PRODUCTS AND THEIR MODE OF ACTION
Keywords:Genistein, Resveratrol, Polyphenol-rich extracts, Cancer treatment
Cancer has emerged as the second leading cause of death globally. There has been a lot of interest in other treatments like this. This includes hormonal supplements, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery, and other medicines which are used in singles or combinations. Therefore, due to the habit of patient combination therapy, interactions of other drugs like hormonal supplements may be of great risk. Without consulting the doctor, the administration of herbal medicines by patients is growing rapidly in the whole world. There is also a possibility of herbal medicines. Extracts or herbal medicines are a combination of active ingredients that automatically interacts with other medicines to increase or reduce the therapeutic effect. This review focuses on the interactions of herbal medicines as well as on different types of nanoparticles (NPs), which are affected by various types of cancer treatment. Dietetic phytochemicals such as genestin, curcumin, epiglottits gillette, quercetin, and resveratrol have been given special emphasis on their working mechanism. All phytochemicals increase their therapeutic effects either by increasing the bio-availability of other drugs or by stabilizing some other medicines in the system.
Hoyert DL, Xu J. Deaths: Preliminary data for 2011. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2012;61:1-51.
Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho MS, Neyman N, Aminou R, Altekruse SF, et al. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2009 (Vintage 2009 Populations). Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2012. p. 1975-2009. Available from: https://www.seer.cancer.gov/ csr/1975_2009_pops09.
Block G, Patterson B, Subar A. Fruit, vegetables, and cancer prevention: A review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutr Cancer 1992;18:1-29.
Aggarwal B, Prasad S, Sung B, Krishnan S, Guha S. Prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer by natural agents from mother nature. Curr colorectal Cancer Rep 2013;9:37-56.
Dragsted LO, Strube M, Larsen JC. Cancer-protective factors in fruits and vegetables: Biochemical and biological background. Pharmacol Toxicol 1993;72:116-35.
Gullett NP, Amin AR, Bayraktar S, Pezzuto JM, Shin DM, Khuri FR, et al. Cancer prevention with natural compounds. Semin Oncol 2010;37:258-81.
Kwon KH, Barve A, Yu S, Huang MT, Kong AN. Cancer chemoprevention by phytochemicals: Potential molecular targets, biomarkers and animal models. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2007;28:1409-21.
Manson MM. Cancer prevention-the potential for diet to modulate molecular signalling. Trends Mol Med 2003;9:11-8.
Aggarwal BB, Shishodia S. Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer. Biochem Pharmacol 2006;71:1397-421.
Surh YJ. Cancer chemoprevention with dietary phytochemicals. Nat Rev Cancer 2003;3:768-80.
Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: A review. J Am Diet Assoc 1996;96:1027-39.
Manikandan R, Beulaja M, Arulvasu C, Sellamuthu S, Dinesh D, Prabhu D, et al. Synergistic anticancer activity of curcumin and catechin: An in vitro study using human cancer cell lines. Microsc Res Tech 2012;75:112-6.
Hwang JT, Lee YK, Shin JI, Parkb OJ. Anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effect of genistein alone or in combination with capsaicin in TPA-treated rat mammary glands or mammary cancer cell line. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2009;1171:415-20.
Liu RH. Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: Mechanism of action. J Nutr 2004;134 Suppl 12:3479S-85S.
de Kok TM, van Breda SG, Manson MM. Mechanisms of combined action of different chemopreventive dietary compounds: A review. Eur J Nutr 2008;47:51-9.
Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. The hallmarks of cancer. Cell 2000;100:57-70.
Ashraf MA. Phytochemicals as potential anticancer drugs: Time to ponder nature’s bounty. Biomed Res Int 2020;2020:8602879.
Liu LF, Desai SD, Li TK, Mao Y, Sun ME, Sim SP. Mechanism of action of camptothecin. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000;922:1-10.
Toews ML, Bylund DB. Pharmacologic principles for combination therapy. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2005;2:282-9.
Sporn MB, Dunlop NM, Newton DL, Smith JM. Prevention of chemical carcinogenesis by Vitamin A and its synthetic analogs (retinoids). Fed Proc 1976;35:1332-8.
Sporn MB. Chemoprevention of cancer. Lancet 1993;342:1211-3.
Bommareddy A, Eggleston W, Prelewicz S, Antal A, Witczak Z, Mccune DF, et al. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer by major dietary phytochemicals. Anticancer Res 2013;33:4163-74.
Stanton RA, Gernert KM, Nettles JH, Aneja R. Drugs that target dynamic microtubules: A new molecular perspective. Med Res Rev 2011;31:443-81.
Park W, Amin AR, Chen ZG, Shin DM. New perspectives of curcumin in cancer prevention. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2013;6:387-400.
Tomasz M, Palom Y. The mitomycin bioreductive antitumor agents: Cross-linking and alkylation of DNA as the molecular basis of their activity. Pharmacol Ther 1997;76:73-87.
Yvon AM, Wadsworth P, Jordan MA. Taxol suppresses dynamics of individual microtubules in living human tumor cells. Mol Biol Cell 1999;10:947-59.
Jeong JH, An JY, Kwon YT, Rhee JG, Lee YJ. Effects of low dose quercetin: Cancer cell-specific inhibition of cell cycle progression. J Cell Biochem 2009;106:73-82.
Panda D, Rathinasamy K, Santra MK, Wilson L. Kinetic suppression of microtubule dynamic instability by griseofulvin: Implications for its possible use in the treatment of cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005;102:9878-83.
Chen C, Kong AN. Dietary cancer-chemopreventive compounds: From signaling and gene expression to pharmacological effects. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2005;26:318-26.
Bahramikia S, Yazdanparast R. Phytochemistry and medicinal properties of Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae). Phytother Res 2012;26:1581-93.
Lohse I, Brothers SP. Pathogenesis and treatment of pancreatic cancer related pain. Anticancer Res 2020;40:1789-96.
Chan MM, Soprano KJ, Weinstein K, Fong D. Epigallocatechin- 3-gallate delivers hydrogen peroxide to induce death of ovarian cancer cells and enhances their cisplatin susceptibility. J Cell Physiol 2006;207:389-96.
Du B, Jiang L, Xia Q, Zhong L. Synergistic inhibitory effects of curcumin and 5-fluorouracil on the growth of the human colon cancer cell line HT-29. Chemotherapy 2006;52:23-8.
Du G, Lin H, Wang M, Zhang S, Wu X, Lu L, et al. Quercetin greatly improved therapeutic index of doxorubicin against 4T1 breast cancer by its opposing effects on HIF-1α in tumor and normal cells. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2010;65:277-87.
Du G, Lin H, Yang Y, Zhang S, Wu X, Wang M, et al. Dietary quercetin combining intratumoral doxorubicin injection synergistically induces rejection of established breast cancer in mice. Int Immunopharmacol 2010;10:819-26.
Fabiani R, Sepporta MV, Mazza T, Rosignoli P, Fuccelli R, de Bartolomeo A, et al. Influence of cultivar and concentration of selected phenolic constituents on the in vitro chemiopreventive potential of olive oil extracts. J Agric Food Chem 2011;59:8167-74.
Jaszewska E, Kosmider A, Kiss AK, Naruszewicz M. Oenothera paradoxa defatted seeds extract containing pentagalloylglucose and procyanidins potentiates the cytotoxicity of vincristine. J Physiol Pharmacol 2010;61:637.
Kowalczyk MC, Kowalczyk P, Tolstykh O, Hanausek M, Walaszek Z, Slaga TJ. Synergistic effects of combined phytochemicals and skin cancer prevention in SENCAR mice. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2010;3:170-8.
Kuhar M, Imran S, Singh N. Curcumin and quercetin combined with cisplatin to induce apoptosis in human laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cells through the mitochondrial pathway. J Cancer Mol 2007;3:121-8.
Lang M, Henson R, Braconi C, Patel T. Epigallocatechin-gallate modulates chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in human cholangiocarcinoma cells. Liver Int 2009;29:670-7.
McDonnell CO, Holden G, Sheridan ME, Foley D, Moriarty M, Walsh TN, et al. Improvement in efficacy of chemoradiotherapy by addition of an antiangiogenic agent in a murine tumor model. J Surg Res 2004;116:19-23.
Mertens-Talcott SU, Percival SS. Ellagic acid and quercetin interact synergistically with resveratrol in the induction of apoptosis and cause transient cell cycle arrest in human leukemia cells. Cancer Lett 2005;218:141-51.
Mertens-Talcott SU, Talcott ST, Percival SS. Low concentrations of quercetin and ellagic acid synergistically influence proliferation, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in MOLT-4 human leukemia cells. J Nutr 2003;133:2669-74.
Mohammad RM, Banerjee S, Li Y, Aboukameel A, Kucuk O, Sarkar FH. Retracted: Cisplatin-induced antitumor activity is potentiated by the soy isoflavone genistein in BxPC-3 pancreatic tumor xenografts. Cancer 2006;106:1260-8.
Montopoli M, Ragazzi E, Froldi G, Caparrotta L. Cell-cycle inhibition and apoptosis induced by curcumin and cisplatin or oxaliplatin in human ovarian carcinoma cells. Cell Prolif 2009;42:195-206.
Paur I, Balstad TR, Kolberg M, Pedersen MK, Austenaa LM, Jacobs DR, et al. Extract of oregano, coffee, thyme, clove, and walnuts inhibits NF-kappaB in monocytes and in transgenic reporter mice. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2010;3:653-63.
Pfundstein B, El Desouky SK, Hull WE, Haubner R, Erben G, Owen RW. Polyphenolic compounds in the fruits of Egyptian medicinal plants (Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia horrida): Characterization, quantitation and determination of antioxidant capacities. Phytochemistry 2010;71:1132-48.
Qian F, Wei D, Zhang Q, Yang S. Modulation of P-glycoprotein function and reversal of multidrug resistance by (–)-epigallocatechin gallate in human cancer cells. Biomed Pharmacother 2005;59:64-9.
Rajabalian S. Methanolic extract of Teucrium polium L. potentiates the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of anticancer drugs of vincristine, vinblastine and doxorubicin against a panel of cancerous cell lines. Exp Oncol 2008;30:133-8.
Ramos AM, Aller P. Quercetin decreases intracellular GSH content and potentiates the apoptotic action of the antileukemic drug arsenic trioxide in human leukemia cell lines. Biochem pharmacol 2008;75:1912-23.
Seeram NP, Adams LS, Henning SM, Niu Y, Zhang Y, Nair MG, et al. In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice. J Nutr Biochem 2005;16:360-7.
Shervington A, Pawar V, Menon S, Thakkar D, Patel R. The sensitization of glioma cells to cisplatin and tamoxifen by the use of catechin. Mol Biol Rep 2009;36:1181-6.
Shimizu M, Deguchi A, Lim JT, Moriwaki H, Kopelovich L, Weinstein IB. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate and polyphenon E inhibit growth and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 signaling pathways in human colon cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res 2005;11:2735-46.
Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin 2012;62:10-29.
Siveen KS, Kuttan G. Role of macrophages in tumour progression. Immunol Lett 2009;123:97-102.
Suganuma M, Saha A, Fujiki H. New cancer treatment strategy using combination of green tea catechins and anticancer drugs. Cancer Sci 2011;102:317-23.
Tai CJ, Wang CK, Tai CJ, Lin YF, Lin CS, Jian JY, et al. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves induces autophagy and enhances cytotoxicity of cisplatin, doxorubicin, docetaxel, and 5-fluorouracil in human colorectal carcinoma cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;2013:514719.
Teerasripreecha D, Phuwapraisirisan P, Puthong S, Kimura K, Okuyama M, Mori H, et al. In vitro antiproliferative/cytotoxic activity on cancer cell lines of a cardanol and a cardol enriched from Thai Apis mellifera propolis. BMC Complement Altern Med 2012;12:27.
Thomasset SC, Berry DP, Garcea G, Marczylo T, Steward WP, Gescher AJ. Dietary polyphenolic phytochemicals-promising cancer chemopreventive agents in humans? A review of their clinical properties. Int J Cancer 2007;120:451-8.
Selvakumari D, Deepa R, Mahalakshmi V, Subhashini P, Lakshminarayan N. Anti cancer activity of ZnO nanoparticles on MCF7 (breast cancer cell) and A549 (lung cancer cell). ARPN J Eng Appl Sci 2015;10:5418-21.
Ahmad J, Ahamed M, Akhtar MJ, Alrokayan SA, Siddiqui MA, Musarrat J, et al. Apoptosis induction by silica nanoparticles mediated through reactive oxygen species in human liver cell line HepG2. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2012;259:160-8.
Rasmussen JW, Martinez E, Louka P, Wingett DG. Zinc oxide nanoparticles for selective destruction of tumor cells and potential for drug delivery applications. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2010;7:1063-77.
Lee J, Chatterjee DK, Lee MH, Krishnan S. Gold nanoparticles in breast cancer treatment: Promise and potential pitfalls. Cancer Lett 2014;347:46-53.
Rajeshkumar S. Anticancer activity of eco-friendly gold nanoparticles against lung and liver cancer cells. J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2016;14: 195-202.
Mridula P, Deepa M, Sreelakshmy V. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Catharanthus roseus for breast cancer therapy. Int J Res Dev Pharm Life Sci 2016;5:2278.
Madani SY, Naderi N, Dissanayake O, Tan A, Seifalian AM. A new era of cancer treatment: Carbon nanotubes as drug delivery tools. Int J Nanomed 2011;6:2963.
Prasannaraj G, Venkatachalam P. Green engineering of biomolecule-coated metallic silver nanoparticles and their potential cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines. Adv Nat Sci 2017;8:025001.
Ishida T. Anticancer activities of silver ions in cancer and tumor cells and DNA damages by Ag+-DNA base-pairs reactions. MOJ Tumor Res 2017;1:3.
Viens LJ, Henley SJ, Watson M, Markowitz LE, Thomas CC, Thompson TD, et al. Human papillomavirus-associated cancers-United States, 2008-2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65:661-6.
Wu A, Zeng Q, Kang TH, Peng S, Roosinovich E, Pai SI, et al. Innovative DNA vaccine for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated head and neck cancer. Gene Ther 2011;18:304-12.
Hampel S, Kunze D, Haase D, Krämer K, Rauschenbach M, Ritschel M, et al. Carbon nanotubes filled with a chemotherapeutic agent: A nanocarrier mediates inhibition of tumor cell growth. Nanomedicine (Lond) 2008;3:175-82.
Lu YJ, Yang HW, Hung SC, Huang CY, Li SM, Ma CC, et al. Improving thermal stability and efficacy of BCNU in treating glioma cells using PAA-functionalized graphene oxide. Int J Nanomedicine 2012;7:1737-47.
Zhang XF, Gurunathan S. Combination of salinomycin and silver nanoparticles enhances apoptosis and autophagy in human ovarian cancer cells: An effective anticancer therapy. Int J Nanomedicine 2016;11:3655-75.
Orthaber K, Pristovnik M, Skok K, Perić B, Maver U. Skin cancer and its treatment: Novel treatment approaches with emphasis on nanotechnology. J Nanomater 2017;2017:2606271.
Poller JM, Zaloga J, Schreiber E, Unterweger H, Janko C, Radon P, et al. Selection of potential iron oxide nanoparticles for breast cancer treatment based on in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake. Int J Nanomed 2017;12:3207-20.
Peng XH, Qian X, Mao H, Wang AY. Targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor imaging and therapy. Int J Nanomed 2008;3:311-21.
Huang X, Jain PK, El-Sayed IH, El-Sayed MA. Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) using gold nanoparticles. Lasers Med Sci 2008;23:217-28.
Lara Y, Thanh NT, Loizidou M, Seifalian AM. Toxicology and clinical potential of nanoparticles. Nano Today 2011;6:585-607.
Huy TQ, Huyen PT, Le AT, Tonezzer M. Recent advances of silver nanoparticles in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2019;19:1276-87.
Jeyaraj M, Sathishkumar G, Sivanandhan G, MubarakAli D, Rajesh M, Arun R, et al. Biogenic silver nanoparticles for cancer treatment: An experimental report. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2013;106:86-92.
Pinank K, Kaushik B, Shyam V, Amrutia M, Faldu NU. Revolutionary therapies and manipulation of nanoparticles to cure cancer. J Bioelectron Nanotechnol 2016;1:5.
Vinogradov S, Wei X. Cancer stem cells and drug resistance: The potential of nanomedicine. Nanomedicine (Lond) 2012;7:597-615.
Akter M, Sikder MT, Rahman MM, Ullah AA, Hossain KF, Banik S, et al. A systematic review on silver nanoparticles-induced cytotoxicity: Physicochemical properties and perspectives. J Adv Res 2017;9:1-16.
Barabadi H, Ovais M, Shinwari ZK, Saravanan M. Anti-cancer green bionanomaterials: Present status and future prospects. Green Chem Lett Rev 2017;10:285-314.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.