ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY EVALUATION OF KALANCHOE PINNATA (LAM.) PERS. FRESH LEAF JUICE
Keywords:Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers, Fresh leaf juice, Antioxidant activity, Reactive oxygen species, Radical scavenging activity
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. fresh leaf juice for standardized doses using different types of assays.
Methods: The investigation of the antioxidant activity was carried out for the previously standardized doses (by cytotoxicity and genotoxicity analysis) – 50 μl (low dose - LD) and 70 μl (high dose-HD) by Phosphomolybdenum (PM), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity assays.
Results: The activity measured by PM assay for LD and HD of the extract was equivalent to 109 μg/ml and 141 μg/ml of ascorbic acid, respectively, while by FRAP assay, it was equivalent to 17.5 μg/ml and 47 μg/ml of ascorbic acid, respectively. The activity measured by DPPH assay was found equivalent to 83 μg/ml and 177.5 μg/ml of ascorbic acid for LD and HD, with the percent scavenging activity 4.55% and 17.04%, respectively. Similarly, the activity of LD and HD by ABTS assay was found equivalent to 277.5 μg/ml and 308 μg/ml of ascorbic acid with the percent scavenging activity 39.01% and 47.93%, respectively.
Conclusion: The changes observed in the absorbance values for all the assays reflected the increasing antioxidant activity of the plant extract in dose-dependent manner, which justifies the traditional use of this herb in prevention of diseases induced by oxidative stress. The antioxidant activity of K. pinnata fresh leaf juice has been conducted for the 1st time and has not been previously reported.
Ansari N, Chandel D. Antioxidant studies on methanol and aqueous extracts of Gymnosporia montana plant. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2019;11:65-70.
Baiano A, Del Nobile MA. Antioxidant compounds from vegetable matrices: Biosynthesis, occurrence, and extraction systems. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2016;56:2053-68. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2013.812059, PMID 25751787.
Xu DP, Li Y, Meng X, Zhou T, Zhou Y, Zheng J, et al. Natural antioxidants in foods and medicinal plants: Extraction, assessment and resources. Int J Mol Sci 2017;18:96. doi: 10.3390/ijms18010096, PMID 28067795.
Essawi T, Srour M. Screening of some Palestinian medicinal plants for antibacterial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;70:343-9. doi: 10.1016/ s0378-8741(99)00187-7, PMID 10837997.
Silva F, Ferreres JO, Malva AC. Dias: Phytochemical and antioxidant characterization of Hypericum perforatum alcoholic extracts. Food Chem 2005;90:157-67.
Bhavsar S, Dhru B, Zaveri M, Chandel D. A comparative pharmacognostical and phytochemical analysis of Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. leaf extracts. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2018;7:1519-27.
Bhavsar S, Chandel D. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. fresh leaf juice in the cultured human blood lymphocytes. Drug Chem Toxicol 2022;45:360-6. doi: 10.1080/01480545.2019.1696814, PMID 31791148.
Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: Specific application to the determination of Vitamin E. Anal Biochem 1999;269:337-41. doi: 10.1006/abio.1999.4019, PMID 10222007.
Oyaizu M. Studies on products of browning reaction. Jpn J Nutr Diet 1986;44:307-15.
Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset CL. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT Food Sci Technol 1995;28:25-30. doi: 10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5.
Miller NJ, Rice-Evans CA. Factors influencing the antioxidant activity determined by the ABTS•+ radical cation assay. Free Radic Res 1997;26:195-9. doi: 10.3109/10715769709097799, PMID 9161842.
Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 1998.
Yazdanparast R, Bahramikia S, Ardestani A. Nasturtium officinalereduces oxidative stress and enhances antioxidant capacity in hypercholesterolaemic rats. Chem Biol Interact 2008;172:176-84. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2008.01.006, PMID 18325487.
Selvamuthukumaran M, Shi J. Recent advances in extraction of antioxidants from plant by-products processing industries. Food Qual Saf 2017;1:61-81. doi: 10.1093/fqs/fyx004.
Jaiswal S, Chawla R, Sawhney S. Kalanchoe pinnata a promising source of natural antioxidants. Eur J Med Plants 2014;4:1210-22. doi: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/11374.
Tatsimo SJ, de Dieu Tamokou J, Havyarimana L, Csupor D, Forgo , Hohmann J, et al. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of kaempferolrhamnoside derivatives from Bryophyllum pinnatum. BMC Res Notes 2012;5:158. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-158, PMID 22433844.
Sindhu S, Manorama S. Exploration of antioxidant properties in various extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lank.). Res Pharm 2013;3:1-8.
Singh SK, Patel JR, Dangi A. Physicochemical, qualitative and quantitative determination of secondary metabolites and antioxidant potential of Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. Leaf extracts. J Drug Deliv Ther 2019;9:220-4.
Cao G, Prior RL. Comparison of different analytical methods for assessing total antioxidant capacity of human serum. Clin Chem 1998;44 6 Pt 1:1309-15. doi: 10.1093/clinchem/44.6.1309, PMID 9625058.
Huang D, Ou B, Prior RL. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:1841-56. doi: 10.1021/jf030723c, PMID 15769103.
Tusevski O, Kostovska A, Iloska A, Trajkovska L, Simic S. Phenolic production and antioxidant properties of some Macedonian medicinal plants. Cent Eur J Biol 2014;9:888-900. doi: 10.2478/s11535-014- 0322-1.
Chevolleau S, Mallet JF, Ucciani E, Gamisans J, Gruber M. Antioxidant activity in leaves of some Mediterranean plants. J Am Oils Chem Soc 1992;69:1269-71.
Gordon MH. The mechanism of antioxidant action in vitro. In: Hudson BJ, editor. Food Antioxidants: Elsevier Applied Food Science Series. Dordrecht: Springer; 1990. p. 1-18.
Kamboj A, Saluja A, Jain U, Bhatti M. In vitro evaluation and comparison of antioxidant activities of various extracts of leaves and stems of Kalanchoe pinnatum. Int J Green Pharm 2012;6:340-7. doi: 10.4103/0973-8258.108255.
Niki E. Antioxidants in relation to lipid peroxidation. Chem Phys Lipids 1987;44:227-53. doi: 10.1016/0009-3084(87)90052-1, PMID 3311418.
Vawhal PK, Rajavel R, Mute V, Deorao A. Screening of antioxidant activity of Oscillatoria annae in Swiss albino mice. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2011;2:1081-9.
Burits M, Bucar F. Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil. Phytother Res 2000;14:323-8. doi: 10.1002/1099-1573(200008)14:5<323:aid-ptr621>3.0.co;2-q, PMID 10925395.
Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice- Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cationdecolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med 1999;26:1231-7. doi: 10.1016/s0891-5849(98)00315-3, PMID 10381194.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Shruti Bhavsar, Divya Chandel
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.