• KANCHAN RAWAT RANA Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.
  • NIRMALA CHONGTHAM Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.
  • MADHO SINGH BISHT Department of Environment Studies, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India.
  • AJAY PATIAL Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
  • SAVITA VERMA ATTRI Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.



Amino acids, Bamboo shoots, Nutrition, Health, Bambusa, Dendrocalamus, Phyllostachys


Objective: This study was conducted to assess the amino acid profiles of edible shoots of five species of bamboos growing in various geographical regions of India.

Methods: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of free amino acids was done by Reverse Phase-Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-UHPLC). Separation of amino acids was carried out using Zorbax eclipse plus C18 Reverse Phase (1.8 μm), 50 mm × 2.1 mm column on quaternary UHPLC system using modified gradient elution. Derivatization was done by using auto-sampler Agilent’s 1290 infinity. Data assortment and processing were accomplished by using Open Lab Chromatography Data System EZchrome edition, version A.04.06 (Agilent technologies, USA).

Results: In the study, 19 free amino acids were identified, eight essential, five conditionally essential, and six non-essential amino acids (EAA). The principal amino acids were tyrosine (29.41–74.64 μg/mg d.w.) and asparagine (12.81–111.04 μg/mg d.w.). The amount of EAAs ranged from 0.46 to 21.11 μg/mg d.w. For the 1st time, taurine and ornithine are reported in bamboo shoots. The analysis exhibited significant variation (p<0.05) in free amino acids content among the five studied species. Of the five species, Phyllostachys mannii was best compared to the other species in amino acid content.

Conclusion: Results showed superior amino acid composition of bamboo shoots that can be utilized to improve nutritional value of functional foods. Amino acids have various health and therapeutic properties can contribute to the basis for further expansion of these bamboos and imminent potential in applications of food and pharmaceuticals.


Download data is not yet available.


Green CL, Lamming DW. Regulation of metabolic health by essential dietary amino acids. Mech Ageing Dev 2019;177:186-200.

Dai Z, Wu Z, Hang S, Zhu W, Wu G. Amino acid metabolism in intestinal bacteria and its potential implications for mammalian reproduction. Mol Hum Reprod 2015;21:389-409.

Rose AJ. Amino acid nutrition and metabolism in health and disease. Nutrients 2019;11:2623.

Park H, Park G, Jeon W, Ahn JO, Yang YH, Choi KY. Whole-cell bio-catalysis using cytochrome P450 monooxygenases for biotransformation of sustainable bioresources (fatty acids, fatty alkanes, and aromatic amino acids). Biotechnol Adv 2020;40:107504.

Waskiw-Ford M, Hannaian S, Duncan J, Kato H, Abou S, Locke M, et al. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids improve recovery from post-exercise muscle damage independent of increases in integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men. Nutrients 2020;12:1061.

Alagawany M, Elnesr SS, Farag MR, Tiwari R, Yatoo MI, Karthik K, et al. Nutritional significance of amino acids, vitamins and minerals as nutraceuticals in poultry production and health-a comprehensive review. Vet Q 2021;41:1-29.

Koopman R, Elango R. Distinct roles for dietary protein and amino acids in health and disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2021;24:53-4.

Wu G. Amino acids: Metabolism, functions, and nutrition. Amino Acids 2009;37:1-17.

Marcinkiewicz J, Kontny E. Taurine and inflammatory diseases. Amino Acids 2014;46:7-20.

Seol SI, Kim HJ, Choi EB, Kang IS, Lee HK, Lee JK, Kim C, et al. Taurine protects against postischemic brain injury via the antioxidant activity of taurine chloramine. Antioxidants (Basel) 2021;10:372.

Elango R, Laviano A. Protein and amino acids: Key players in modulating health and disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2017;20:69-70.

Galili G, Amir R, Fernie AR. The regulation of essential amino acid synthesis and accumulation in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 2016;67: 153-78.

de Filippis LF. Underutilized and neglected crops: Next generation sequencing approaches for crop improvement and better food security. In: Ozturk M, Hakeem K, Ashraf M, Ahmad M, editors. Global Perspectives on Underutilized Crops. Switzerland: Springer; 2018. p. 287-380.

Ghosh GK. Bamboo: The wonderful grass. New Delhi: APH Publishing; 2014.

Nirmala C, Bisht MS. 10 WBC reports: Bamboo: A prospective ingredient for functional food and nutraceuticals. Bamboo J 2017;30:82-9.

Behera P, Balaji S. Health benefits of fermented bamboo shoots: The twenty-first century green gold of Northeast India. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021;26:1-3.

Collins RJ, Keilar S. The Australian bamboo shoots industry: A supply chain approach. A report for rural industries research and development corporation, Australia. J Community Med 2005;33:9-10.

Park EJ, Jhon DY. The nutritional composition of bamboo shoots and the effects of its fiber on intestinal microorganisms. Korean J Food Cult 2013;28:502-11.

Zheng J, Zhang F, Zhou C, Chen G, Lin M, Kan J. Changes in amino acid contents, texture and microstructure of bamboo shoots during pickling process. Int J Food Sci Technol 2013;48:1847-53.

Lopez-Cervantes J, Sánchez-Machado DI, Rosas-Rodríguez JA. Analysis of free amino acids in fermented shrimp waste by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A 2006;1105:106-10.

Sharma G, Attri SV, Behra B, Bhisikar S, Kumar P, Tageja M, et al. Analysis of 26 amino acids in human plasma by HPLC using AQC as derivatizing agent and its application in metabolic laboratory. Amino Acids 2014;46:1253-63.

Otten JJ, Hellwig JP, Meyers LD. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. United States: National Academies Press; 2006.

Zhang JJ, Ji R, Hu YQ, Chen JC, Ye XQ. Effect of three cooking methods on nutrient components and antioxidant capacities of bamboo shoot (Phyllostachys praecox C.D. Chu et C.S. Chao). J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2011;12:752-9.

Sun J, Ding ZQ, Gao Q, Xun H, Tang F, Xia ED. Major chemical constituents of bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens): Qualitative and quantitative research. J Agric Food Chem 2015;64:2498-505.

Xu XB, Tang F, Guo XF, Wang J, Yao X, Sun J, et al. Isolation, identification and determination of six nucleosides and two amino acids from bamboo shoots of Gramineae Phyllostachys prominens (WY Xiong). Trop J Pharm Res 2015;14:2239-46.

Hasegawa S, Ichiyama T, Sonaka I, Ohsaki A, Okada S, Wakiguchi H, et al. Cysteine, histidine and glycine exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in human coronary arterial endothelial cells. Clin Exp Immunol 2012;167:269-74.

Yang BH, Wang X, Ren X. Amino acid metabolism related to immune tolerance by MDSCs. Int Rev Immunol 2012;31:177-83.

Leinonen I, Iannetta PP, Rees RM, Russell W, Watson C, Barnes AP. Lysine supply is a critical factor in achieving sustainable global protein economy. Front Sustain Food Syst 2019;3:27.

Rhoads JM, Wu, G. Glutamine, arginine, and leucine signaling in the intestine. Amino Acids 2009;37:111-22.

Martínez Y, Li X, Liu G, Bin P, Yan W, Más D, et al. The role of methionine on metabolism, oxidative stress, and diseases. Amino Acids 2017;49:2091-8.

van de Poll MC, Dejong CH, Soeters PB. Adequate range for sulfur-containing amino acids and biomarkers for their excess: Lessons from enteral and parenteral nutrition. J Nutr 2006;136:1694S-700S.

Holecek M. Branched-chain amino acids in health and disease: Metabolism, alterations in blood plasma, and as supplements. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2018;15:33.

Holecek M. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation in treatment of liver cirrhosis: Updated views on tips how attenuate their harmful effects on cataplerosis and ammonia formation. Nutrition 2017;41:80-5.

Leenders M, Loon LJ. Leucine as a pharmaconutrient to prevent and treat sarcopenia and Type 2 diabetes. Nutr Rev 2011;69:675-89.

Holecek M. Relation between glutamine, branched-chain amino acids, and protein metabolism. Nutrition 2002;18:130-3.

Ripps H, Shen W. Review: Taurine: A “very essential” amino acid. Mol Vis 2012;18:2673-86.

Krause M, Fayh AP, Reischak-Oliveira A. L-arginine usage in Type I diabetes: From the autoimmune event to human dietary supplementation. In: L-Arginine in Clinical Nutrition. Switzerland: Humana Press; 2017. p. 395-406.

Newsholme P, Keane KN, Elahy M, Cruzat VF. L-arginine, pancreatic beta cell function, and diabetes: Mechanisms of stimulated insulin release and pathways of metabolism. In: Patel V, Preedy V, Rajendram R, editors. In: L-Arginine in Clinical Nutrition. Switzerland: Humana Press; 2017. p. 85-4.

Fu WJ, Haynes TE, Kohli R. Dietary L-arginine supplementation reduces fat mass in zucker diabetic fatty rats. J Nutr 2005;135:714-21.

Jurecki ER, Cederbaum S, Kopesky J, Perry K, Rohr F, Sanchez- Valle A, et al. Adherence to clinic recommendations among patients with phenylketonuria in the United States. Mol Genet Metab 2017;120:190-7.

Harmer CJ, McTavish SF, Clark L, Goodwin GM, Cowen PJ. Tyrosine depletion attenuates dopamine function in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology 2001;154:105-11.

Hou Y, He W, Hu S, Wu G. Composition of polyamines and amino acids in plant-source foods for human consumption. Amino Acids 2019;51:1153-65.

Wu G, Wu Z, Dai Z, Yang Y, Wang W, Liu C. Dietary requirements of “nutritionally non-essential amino acids” by animals and humans. Amino Acids 2013;44:1107-13.

Wu G. Amino Acids: Biochemistry and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2013.

Jiang XL, Tian JC, Zhi HA, Zhang WD. Protein content and amino acid composition in grains of wheat-related species. Agric Sci China 2008;7:272-9.

Harada D, Nagamachi S, Aso K, Ikeda K, Takahashi Y, Furuse M. Oral administration of l-ornithine increases the content of both collagens constituting amino acids and polyamines in mouse skin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019;512:712-5.

Jalan R, Jalan KN. Compositions Comprising Ornithine and Phenylacetate or Phenylbutyrate for Treating Hepatic Encephalopathy, U.S. Patent No. 10, 610, 506. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office; 2020.

Choi BH, Coloff JL. The diverse functions of non-essential amino acids in cancer. Cancers (Basel) 2019;11:675.



How to Cite

RAWAT RANA, K., N. CHONGTHAM, M. SINGH BISHT, A. PATIAL, and S. VERMA ATTRI. “AMINO ACID PROFILING IN EDIBLE SHOOTS OF SOME BAMBOO SPECIES BY USING RP-UHPLC AND THEIR THERAPEUTICAL ASPECTS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 14, no. 10, Oct. 2021, pp. 119-26, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2021.v14i10.42606.



Original Article(s)