Phytochemical Profiling, HPTLC fingerprint and antibacterial, anti-fungal and antioxidant properties of essential Oils extracted from Cumminum cyminum, Zingiber officinale, Trachyspermum ammi, Alipnia galanga, Cedrus deodara, and Elettaria cardamomum

Phytochemical profiling and bio-activity of essential Oils


  • Manas Ranjan Sahoo Mr
  • Guruvaur appan AVN Ayurveda Formulation Pvt Ltd
  • Dr. Ramesh AVN Ayurveda Formulation Pvt Ltd
  • Mrs. Anithakumari AVN Ayurveda Formulation Pvt Ltd
  • Mrs. Maheswari
  • Mr. Ramehs AVN Ayurveda Formulation Pvt Ltd
  • Dr. Srikrishna AVN Ayurveda Formulation Pvt Ltd


Antimicrobial activity, Bioautography, Essential Oils, Phytochemical analysis, HPTLC fingerprint.


Essential oils (EOs) are traditionally used for aromatherapy, pain relief, respiratory infection, skin diseases, and digestive ailments including uses in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and home care applications. In the present study the essential oils extracted from Cumminum cyminum, Zingiber officinale, Trachyspermum ammi, Alipnia galanga, Cedrus deodara, and Elettaria cardamomum were studied. The essential oil was extracted using clavenger apparatus and the HPTLC fingerprint, phytochemical analysis was carried out for the essential oil. The antibacterial and antifungal activity were evaluated using agar well-diffusion method against two bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and two fungal strains, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus brasiliensis. Positive controls ciprofloxacin-30mg, azithromycin-15mg and nystatin NS-50mg was used. Antioxidant potential of the essential oils were investigated by TLC-bioautography method using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl derivatization. The phytochemical analysis reveals presence of various phytochemical like steroids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids. The HPTLC fingerprint is found to be unique for each of the oil. The Essential oil of Zingiber officinale and Trachyspermum ammi showed strong antibacterial activity against S.aureus. The essential oils of Cumminum cyminum, Tachyspermum ommi and Alipnia galanga displayed prominent antioxidant activity on TLC bioautography. The herbs Cuminum cynimun, Trachyspermum ammi, Cedrus deodara and Ellateria cardamomum produce reasonable amount of essentials oil, which can be explored for useful their industrial applications. These essential oils can be explored further for their antimicrobial activity. The HPTLC analysis along with derivatization with suitable chromogenic reagents can be an easy and speed tool for quality control of various essential oils.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Guruvaur appan , AVN Ayurveda Formulation Pvt Ltd

Pharmaceutcial microbiologist-M.Phil in Microbiology, Officer in QC-microbiology department 

Dr. Ramesh , AVN Ayurveda Formulation Pvt Ltd

Managing Director of the company. Provides the idea about the study and all necessary facilities. 

Mrs. Anithakumari , AVN Ayurveda Formulation Pvt Ltd

Sr. Officer and in R&D-Product development and Herbal API

Mrs. Maheswari

Chemist-API and Product development R&D

Mr. Ramehs , AVN Ayurveda Formulation Pvt Ltd

Chemist-Quality Control 

Dr. Srikrishna, AVN Ayurveda Formulation Pvt Ltd

Manager-in product marketing and clinical trials managment


Agnes Peterfalvi, Eva Miko,Tamas Nagy,Barbara Reger,Diana Simon,Attila Miseta,Boldizsar Czeh,Laszlo Szereday. Much More Than a Pleasant Scent: A Review on Essential Oils Supporting the Immune System. Molecules 2019, 24, 4530.

Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils, Riccardo Amorati, Mario C. Foti, Luca Valgimigli. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013, 61, 46, 10835–10847.

Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Essential Oils, Author(s): D. Kalemba, A. Kunicka. Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry. Volume 10 , Issue 10 , 2003.Page: [813 - 829].

Hamdy A.E. Shaaban, Ahmed H. El-Ghorab,Takayuki Shibamoto.Bioactivity of essential oils and their volatile aroma components: Review. The Journal of Essential Oil Research Vol. 24, No. 2, April 2012, 203–212.

Babar Ali, Naser Ali Al-Wabel, Saiba Shams,Aftab Ahamad,Shah Alam Khan,Firoz Anwar. Essential oils used in aromatherapy: A systemic review. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2015; 5(8): 601–611.

Rong Tsao, Ting Zhou. Natural Antimicrobials from Plant Essential Oils. New Biocides Development-The Combined Approach of Chemistry and Microbiology, Editor(s):Peter C. Zhu, American Chemical Society 2007, Chapter 18, pp 364-387.

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory articular effects of essential oil and camphor isolated from Ocimum kilimandscharicum Gürke leaves Elisangela dosSantosaMaicon MatosLeitãoabCaren NaomiAguero ItoaSaulo EuclidesSilva-FilhocArielle CristinaArenadFrancielliMaria de Souza Silva-ComareRoberto KenjiNakamura CumaneRodrigo JulianoOliveirafAnelise SamaraNazari FormagioaCândida AparecidaLeite Kassuyaa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology,2020, 113697.

Yichen Hu, Jiaoyang Luo, Weijun Kong,Jinming Zhang,Antonio F. Logrieco,Xizhi Wangd and Meihua Yang. Uncovering the antifungal components from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) essential oil as Aspergillus flavus fumigants by partial least squares

M. Burits F. Bucar.Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil.Volume14, Issue5, August 2000, Pages 323-328.

Phytochemical Analysis and in vitro Antiviral Activities of the Essential Oils of Seven Lebanon Species Monica R. Loizzo Antoine M. Saab Rosa Tundis Giancarlo A. Statti Francesco Menichini Ilaria Lampronti Roberto Gambari Jindrich Cinatl Hans Wilhelm Doerr Chemistry & BiodiversityVolume 5, Issue 3 First published: 20 March 2008.

Phytochemical Analysis and in vitro Antiviral Activities of the Essential Oils of Seven Lebanon Species Monica R. Loizzo Antoine M. Saab Rosa Tundis Giancarlo A. Statti Francesco Menichini Ilaria Lampronti Roberto Gambari Jindrich Cinatl Hans Wilhelm Doerr Chemistry & BiodiversityVolume 5, Issue 3 First published: 20 March 2008

Agnes Peterfalvi, Eva Miko,Tamas Nagy.Much More Than a Pleasant Scent: A Review on Essential Oils Supporting the Immune System.Molecules 2019, 24, 4530.

Chenxia Han, Feng Li, Simin T. Beneficial effect of compound essential oil inhalation on central fatigue. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2018) 18:309.

Namrata Dagli, Rushabh Dagli,Rasha Said Mahmoud,Kusai Baroudi. Essential oils, their therapeutic properties, and implication in dentistry: A review.J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2015, 5(5): 335–340.

Ruifang yuan, Dingkun Zhang, Jinhui yang, Zhenfeng wu, Chuanhng luo, Li Han, Fangli yang, Junzhi lin, MIng yang. Review of aromatherapy essential oils and their mechanism of action against migraines. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Volume 265, 30 January 2021, 113326.

Isaac John Umaru,Fasihuddin A. Badruddin,Hauwa A. Umaru.Phytochemical Screening of Essential Oils and Antibacterial Activity and Antioxidant Properties of Barringtonia asiatica (L) Leaf Extract. Hindawi Biochemistry Research International Volume 2019, Article ID 7143989.

Anticancer Properties of Essential Oils: An Overview. Author(s): Milene Aparecida Andrade, Mariana Aparecida Braga, Pedro Henrique Souza Cesar, Marcus Vinicius Cardoso Trento, Mariana Araújo Espósito, Lucilene Fernandes Silva, Silvana Marcussi. Journal Name: Current Cancer Drug Targets. Volume 18 , Issue 10 , 2018.

Essential Oils: Extraction Techniques, Pharmaceutical And Therapeutic Potential - A Review Author(s): Zarith Asyikin Abdul Aziz, Akil Ahmad, Siti Hamidah Mohd Setapar*, Alptug Karakucuk, Muhammad Mohsin Azim, David Lokhat, Mohd. Rafatullah, Magdah Ganash, Mohammad A. Kamal, Ghulam Md Ashraf* Journal Name: Current Drug Metabolism. Volume 19 , Issue 13 , 2018

Monoterpenes: Essential Oil Components with Valuable Features. Author(s): Anahita Boveiri Dehsheikh, Mohammad Mahmoodi Sourestani, Paria Boveiri Dehsheikh, Javad Mottaghipisheh, Sara Vitalini, Marcello Iriti. Journal Name: Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. Volume 20 , Issue 11 , 2020 (agriculture industry).

Safoura Derakhshan, Morteza Sattari, and Mohsen Bigdeli.Effect of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) seed essential oil on biofilm formation and plasmid Integrity of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Pharmacogn Mag. 2010 Jan-Mar; 6(21): 57–61.

Dushyant Kumar, Kuntal Ganguly,H. V. Hegde,P. A. Patil, S. D. Kholkute. Spasmolytic effect of traditional herbal formulation on guinea pig ileum.J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2015 Jul-Sep; 6(3): 194–197.

Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition.Benzie IFF, Wachtel-Galor S, editors.Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2011. Chapter 7The Amazing and Mighty Ginger. Ann M. Bode and Zigang Dong.


Mehdi Sharifi-Rad,Elena Maria Varoni,Bahare Salehi. Plants of the Genus Zingiber as a Source of Bioactive Phytochemicals: From Tradition to Pharmacy.Molecules.2017;22(12):2145.

Luca A.Vitali, Daniela Beghelli, Prosper C.Biapa Nya. Diverse biological effects of the essential oil from Iranian Trachyspermum ammi.Arabian Journal of Chemistry


Leopold Jirovetz, Gerhard Buchbauer, Mohamed Pottachola Shafi, Neettiyath Kalathil Leela. Analysis of the essential oils of the leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots of the medicinal plant Alpinia galanga from southern India. Acta Pharm. 2003 Jun;53(2):73-81.

Apinya Rachkeeree, Kuttiga Kantadoung, Ratchuporn Suksathan, Ratchadawan Puangpradab, Paul Alexander Page, Sarana Rose Sommano. Nutritional Compositions and Phytochemical Properties of the Edible Flowers from Selected Zingiberaceae Found in Thailand.Front Nutr. 2018; 5: 3.

Xiaofeng Shi, Dongyan Liu, Junmin Zhang, Pengbin Hu, Wei Shen, Bin Fan, Quhuan Ma, Xindi Wang. Extraction and purification of total flavonoids from pine needles of Cedrus deodara contribute to anti-tumor in vitro. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016; 16: 245.

Kaliyaperumal Ashokkumar, Muthusamy Murugan, M K Dhanya, Thomas D Warkentin. Botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of cardamom [Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton] - A critical review.J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Jan 10;246:112244.

Emira Noumi, Mejdi Snoussi, Mousa M. Alreshidi, Punchappady-Devasya Rekha, Kanekar Saptami,Lucia Caputo,Laura De Martino, Lucéia Fatima Souza, Kamel Msaada,Emilia Mancini, Guido Flamini,Abdulbasit Al-sieni,Vincenzo De Feo.Chemical and Biological Evaluation of Essential Oils from Cardamom Species.Molecules. 2018 Nov; 23(11): 2818.

Evaluating the antimicrobial potential of green cardamom essential oil focusing on quorum sensing inhibition of Chromobacterium violaceum.Abdullah,corresponding author1 Ali Asghar,1 Masood Sadiq Butt,1 Muhammad Shahid,2 and Qingrong Huang3J Food Sci Technol. 2017 Jul; 54(8): 2306–2315.

Dimitra J. Daferera, Petros A. Tarantilis, and Moschos G. Polissiou. Characterization of Essential Oils from Lamiaceae Species by Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002, 50, 20, 5503–5507.

Fidele Ntie-Kang, Mechanistic role of plant-based bitter principles and bitterness prediction for natural product studies II: prediction tools and case studies.Physical Sciences Reviews, 2019, 4, 8.

Hildebert Wagner, Sabine Bladt. Plant Drug Analysis:A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York. 2001, pp359-364.

N.Raaman, Phytochemical Techniques. New India Publishing Agency, 2006,Chapter-5, Qualitative Phytochemical screening, pp20-24.

Harmorne JB. Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of Plant Analysis, 3rd edition. Pp291-293.

Margarita Cid-Hernandez, Fernando Antonio Lopez Dellamary-Toral, Luis Javier Gonzalez-Ortiz, Maria Judith Sanchez-Pena, Fermin Paul Pacheco-Moises, International Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 2018, Article ID 4605373.

Lukasz Ciesla. Biological Fingerprinting of Herbal Samples by Means of Liquid Chromatography.Chromatography Research International, 2012, Article ID 532418.

Marston A. Thin-layer chromatography with biological detection in phytochemistry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (2011) 2676–2683.



How to Cite

Sahoo, M. R., G. appan . Palanichamy, D. R. R. . Varrier, Rajendran Anithakumari, Harekrishna Maheswari, K Ramesh, and Srikrishna S. “Phytochemical Profiling, HPTLC Fingerprint and Antibacterial, Anti-Fungal and Antioxidant Properties of Essential Oils Extracted from Cumminum Cyminum, Zingiber Officinale, Trachyspermum Ammi, Alipnia Galanga, Cedrus Deodara, and Elettaria Cardamomum: Phytochemical Profiling and Bio-Activity of Essential Oils”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 15, no. 3, Jan. 2022,



Original Article(s)