• FARHA ALI Department of Biochemistry, LN Medical College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
  • MANINDER BINDRA Department of Biochemistry, LN Medical College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India




Vitamin D, Estrogen, Postmenopausal women, Lifestyle factors


Objectives: The study was designed to determine the effect of menopause and lifestyle factors on Serum Vitamin D levels in postmenopausal women.

Methods: The present study comprises 100 healthy women treated as controls and was compared to 200 postmenopausal women as cases. Those fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled for the study and blood samples were analyzed for Vitamin D and Estrogen.

Results: Significant lower concentration of Vitamin D (p<0.001) and estrogen (p<0.001) was found in postmenopausal women when compared with healthy women.

Conclusion: Vitamin D is a steroid hormone known for its essential role in maintaining calcium homeostasis, promoting and maintaining bone health, and improving immune function. During the menopausal stages, there is a gradual reduction in estrogen levels this decline in estrogen production promotes Vitamin D deficiency.


Download data is not yet available.


Syed F, Latif MS, Ahmed I, Bibi S, Ullah S, Khalid N. Vitamin D deficiency in Pakistani population: Critical overview from 2008-2018. Nutr Food Sci 2019;50:105-15.

Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of Vitamin D deficiency: An endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:1911-30.

Khammissa RA, Fourie J, Motswaledi MH, Ballyram R, Lemmer J, Feller L. The biological activities of Vitamin D and its receptor in relation to calcium and bone homeostasis, cancer, immune and cardiovascular systems, skin biology, and oral health. Biomed Res Int 2018;2018:9276380.

Nelson HD. Menopause. Lancet 2008;371:760-70.

Kanwar G, Shekhawat M, Sharma P, Hada R, Sharma N, Chandel CS. Comparison of Vitamin D levels in pre and post menopausal Type 2 diabetic females. IOSR J Dent Med Sci 2015;14:70-3.

Harlow SD, Gass M, Hall JE, Lobo R, Maki P, Rebar RW, et al. Executive summary of the stages of reproductive aging workshop + 10: Addressing the unfinished agenda of staging reproductive aging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:1159-68.

Bischof-Ferrari HA, Borchers M, Gudat F, Durmuller U, Stahelin HB, Dick W. Vitamin D receptor expression in human muscle tissue decreases with age. J Bone Miner Res 2004;19:265-9.

Pattanaungkul S, Riggs BL, Yergey AL, Vieira NE, O’Fallon WM, Khosla S. Relationship of intestinal calcium absorption to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels in young versus elderly women: Evidence for age-related intestinal resistance to 1,25(OH)2D action. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:4023-7.

Lobo RA, Davis SR, De Villiersn TJ, Gompel A, Henderson VW, Hodis HN, et al. Prevention of diseases after menopause. Climacteric 2014;17:540-56.

Gomes-Rochette NF, Souza LS, Tommasi BO, Pedrosa DF, Eis SR, Fin ID, et al. Association of PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene to changes into serum lipid profile of post-menopausal women: Effects of aging, body mass index and breast cancer incidence. PLoS One 2017;12:e0169266.

Aspray TJ, Hill TR. Osteoporosis and the ageing skeleton. Subcell Biochem 2019;91:453-76.

Li S, Oun Y, Zhang H, Zhang Z, Zhou H, Liu L, et al. Vitamin D status and its relationship with body composition, bone mineral density and fracture risk in urban central South Chinese postmenopausal women. Ann Nutr Metab 2014;64:13-9.

Gennari C. Calcium and Vitamin D nutrition and bone disease of the elderly. Public Health Nutr 2001;4:547-59.

Ringe JD. Vitamin D deficiency and osteopathies. Osteoporos Int 1998;8:S35-9.

Clemens TL, Zhou XY, Myles M, Endres D, Lindsay R. Serum Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3 metabolite concentrations and absorption of Vitamin D2 in elderly subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1986;63:656-60.

MacLaughlin J, Holick MF. Aging decreases the capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D3. J Clin Invest 1985;76:1536-8.

Kalra S, Kalra B, Khandelwa SK. Vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal women in Haryana. World J Life Sci Med Res 2011;1:11.

Harinarayan CV, Sachan A, Reddy PA, Satish KM, Prasad UV, Srivani P. Vitamin D status and bone mineral density in women of reproductive and postmenopausal age groups: A cross-sectional study from south India. J Assoc Physicians India 2011;59:698-704.

Pearce SH, Cheetham TD. Diagnosis and management of Vitamin D deficiency. BMJ 2010;340:b5664.

Joshi H, Haq A, Pathak R, Mishra P, Mukherjee AK, Singh J, et al. Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency among post-menopausal women and associated obesity and cardiovascular risk. J Obes Weight Loss Ther 2013;3:192.

Cuzick J, Glasier A, La Vecchia C, Maraganore DM, Negri E, Rossi M, et al. Perimenopausal risk factors and future health. Hum. Reprod Update 2011;17:706-17.

Akhtar S, Jan R. Prevalence of Vitamin D inadequacy among postmenopausal women. Med Forum Mon J Spec 2019;24:58-9.

Capatina C, Carsote M, Caragheorgheopol A, Poiana C, Berteanu M. Vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal women-biological correlates. Maedica (Bucur) 2014;9:316-22.

Narula R, Tauseef M, Ahmad IA, Agarwal K, Ashok A, Anjana A. Vitamin D deficiency among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7:336-8.

Snijder MB, Van Dam RM, Visser M, Deeg DJ, Dekker JM, Bouter LM, et al. Adiposity in relation to Vitamin D status and Parathyroid hormone levels: A population based study in older men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:4119-23.

Holick MF. Sunlight and Vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1678S-88.

Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, Hollick MF. Decreased bioavailability of Vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:690-3.



How to Cite

ALI, F., and MANINDER BINDRA. “EFFECT OF MENOPAUSE AND LIFESTYLE FACTORS ON SERUM VITAMIN D STATUS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 15, no. 9, Sept. 2022, pp. 223-5, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2022.v15i9.46178.



Original Article(s)