• Nabila Ahmed Maziad Atomic Energy outhourty -national cinter for radiation researsh and technology
  • Sabrnal El-hamouly
  • Ebrhem Zied
  • Tamer A El Kelani
  • Nada Rabie Nasef


The objective of the present work was to synthesize copolymer hydrogel composed of poly acrylic acid (PAAc) and PAAc/pectin, which are very

sensitive to environmental stimulus, this feature is important for their application in biomedical applications, due to its unique properties, which
can resemble human living organs, wound dressing, drug delivery systems. Gamma radiation induces synthesis and modification of monomer to
polymer hydrogel was studied. The effect of different parameter onto preparation of smart hydrogel such as monomer concentration, radiation dose
on to swelling percent of the prepared copolymer hydrogel have been studied, gel fraction have been studied as a function of swelling ratio. Structure
characterization of the prepared copolymer hydrogel have been investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, The morphological
structure using X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy have been studied. The swelling properties of the prepared copolymers
have been studied at different time and pH. It was found that the swelling percent increases as the time increase and increases as pH increase and the
maximum swelling occurs at pH 6 with the value of 19,000% for PAAc hydrogel and 10,000% for PAAc/pectin hydrogels after 24 hrs. Drug loading
measurements using ciprofloxacin (CPFX) drug at pH 7 for PAAc hydrogel after 24 hrs and at pH 11 for PAAc/pectin hydrogels. Studies of drugreleasing
of CPFX as drug model have been investigated, at different time and pH and it was found that the drug release incases as pH increase and the
maximum release occurs at pH 4 for PAAc and pH (3,8) for PAAc/pectin hydrogels, the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized copolymeric hydrogel
under study was evaluated based on the diameters of clear zone surrounding the polymeric substance (disk diffusion test) this proved that polymeric
hydrogel can be used as antibacterial agent.

Keywords: Radiation, Copolymerization, Pectin, Acrylic monomers, Drug release.


Peppas NA, Bures P, Leobandung W, Ichikawa H. Hydrogels in

pharmaceutical formulations. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2000;50(1):27-46.

Saraydin D, Karadadag E, Guven O. Adsorption of some heavy metal

ions in aqueous solutions by acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogels. Sep Sci

Techonol 1995;30(17):32-91.

Thakur A, Wanchoo RK, Singha P. Structural parameters and swelling

behavior of pH sensitive. Chem Biochem Eng Q 2011;25(2):181-94.

Kopecek J. Hydrogel biomaterials: A smart future. Biomaterials


Park K, Shalaby SW, Park H. Biodegradable Hydrogels for Drug

Delivery. Vol. 6. Lancaster: Technomic Publishing Co. Inc.; 1993. p. 21.

Darwis D. Role of radiation processing in production of hydrogels for

medical applications. Atom Indones 2009;35(2):85-104.

Hanif M, Ranjha NM, Shoaib MH, Mudasser J, Yousuf RI, Khan A, et al.

Preparation, characterization and release of verapamil hydrochloride

from polycaprolactone/acrylic acid (PCL/AA) hydrogels. Pak J Pharm

Sci 2011;24(4):503-11.

Ranade VV, Hollinger MA. Drug Delivery Systems. Boca Raton, FL:

CRC Press; 1995.

Yang H, Wang W, Zhang J, Wang A. Preparation, characterization,

and drug-release behaviors of a pH-sensitive composite hydrogel bead

based on guar gum, attapulgite, and sodium alginate. Int J Polym Mater

Polym Biomater 2012;62:369-76.

Sullad AG, Manjeshwar LS, Aminabhavi TM. Novel interpenetrating

polymer network hydrogel. Ind Eng Chem Res 2010;49:7323.

Namazi H, Jafarirad S. Application of hybrid organic/inorganic

dendritic ABA type triblock copolymers as new nanocarriers in drug

delivery systems. Int J Polym Mater 2011;60(9):603-19.

Liu L, Sheardown H. Glucose permeable poly (dimethyl siloxane) poly

(N-isopropyl acrylamide) interpenetrating networks as ophthalmic

biomaterials. Biomaterials 2005;26(3):233-44.

Zhang XZ, Wu DQ, Chu CC. Synthesis, characterization and controlled

drug release of thermosensitive IPN-PNIPAAm hydrogels. Biomaterials


Vandamme TF, Lenourry A, Charrueay C, Chaumeil JC. The use

of polysaccharides to target drugs to colon. Carbohydr Polym


Liu LS, Fishman ML, Hicks KB. An in vitro study of mucoadhesive

properties of pectins. Abstracts of The 7th US-Japan Symposium On

Drug Delivery Systems. Vol. 16. 2003. p. 14-9.

Griset AP, Walpole J, Liu R, Gaffey A, Colson YL, Grinstaff MW.

Expansile nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, and in vivo

efficacy of an acid-responsive polymeric drug delivery system. J Am

Chem Soc 2009;131(7):2469-71.

Yang SP, Fu SY, Zhou YM, Xie CL, Li XY. Int J Polym Mater


George M, Abraham TE. pH sensitive alginate-guar gum hydrogel for the

controlled delivery of protein drugs. Int J Pharm 2007;335(1-2):123-9.

Maji TK, Devi N. Genipin cross linked chitosan-κ-carrageenan

polyelectrolyte nanocapsules for the controlled delivery of isoniazid.

Int J Polym Mater 2010;59:828.

Buchholz FL, Graham AT. Modern Superabsorbent Polymer

Technology. New York: Wiley-Blackwell; 1997.

Sadeghi M. Pectin-based biodegradable hydrogels with potential

biomedical applications as drug delivery systems. J Biomater

Nanobiotechnol 2011;2(1):36-40.

Mishra1 RK, Banthia AK, Majeed AB. Pectin based formulations

for biomedical applications: A review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res


Cabrera JC, Cambier P, Cutsem PV. Drug encapsulation in pectin

hydrogel beads: A systematic study of simulated digestion media. Int J

Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;3:0975-1491.

Liu L, Fishman ML, Hicks KB, Kende M. Interaction of various

pectin formulations with porcine colonic tissues. Biomaterials


Zhou X, Weng L, Chen Q, Zhang J, Shen D, Li Z, Shao M, et al.

Investigation of pH sensitivity of poly (acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)

hydrogel. Polym Int 2003;52(7):1153.

Katime I, Novoa R, De Apodaca E, Mendizabal E, Puig JJ. Theophylline

release from poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) hydrogels. PolymTesting 1999;18:559.

Isik B, Kis M. Preparation and determination of swelling behavior of

poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels in water. J Appl Polym Sci


Cruickshank R, Duguid JP, Marmion BP, Swain RH. Medical

Microbiology: The Practice of Medical Microbiology. Vol. II.

Edinburgh and New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1975.

Al-Qudah YH. Swelling and drug release properties of starch based

copolymer hydrogel prepared by ionizing radiation. Arab J Nucl Sci

Appl 2012;45(2):179-85.

Peppas NA, Sahlin JJ. Hydrogels as mucoadhesive and bioadhesive

materials: a review. Biomaterials 1996;17(16):1553-61.

Peppas NA, Klier J. Controlled release by using poly(Methacrylic acidg-

ethyleneglycol) hydrogels. J Control Release 1991;16:203-214.

Nho YC, Park JS, Youn M. Polymers 2014;6:890-8.

Sadeghi M, Behrouzheidari H, Korushmontazeri M. Investigation and

evalution of swelling kinetics related to biocopolymers based on CMC

poly(AA-co BuMC). World Acad Sci Eng Technol 2011;52:421-3.

Pourjavadi A, Sadeghi M, Hosseinzadeh H. Modified carrageenan. 5.

Preparation, swelling behavior, salt-and pH-sensitivity of partially

hydrolyzed crosslinked carrageenan-graft-polymethacrylamide

superabsorbent hydrogel. Polym Adv Technol 2004;15(11):645-53.

Shin BK, Baek EJ, Choi SG, Davaa E, Nho YC, Lim YM, et al.

Preparation and irradiation of pluronic F127-based thermoreversible

and mucoadhesive hydrogel for local delivery of naproxen. Drug Dev

Ind Pharm 2013;39(12):1874-80.

Choi SG, Baek EJ, Davaa E, Nho YC, Lim YM, Park JS, et al. Topical

treatment of the buccal mucosa and wounded skin in rats with a

triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydrogel prepared using an electron

beam. Int J Pharm 2013;447(1-2):102-8.

Ranjha NM, Mudassir J, Sheikh ZZ. Synthesis and characterization of

PH-Sensitive pectin/acrylic acid hydrogels for verapamil release study.

Iran Polym J 2011;20(2):147-59.

Ranjha NM, Mudassir J, Sheikh ZZ. Synthesis and characterization of

PH-Sensitive pectin/acrylic acid hydrogels for verapamil release study.

Iran Polym J 2011;20(2):147-59.

Sohail K, Khan IU, Shahzad Y, Hussain T, Ranjha NM. pHsensitive

polyvinylpyrrolidone-acrylic acid hydrogels: Impact of

material parameters on swelling and drug release. Braz J Pharm Sci


Khan IU, Serra CA, Anton N, Vandamme T. Continuous-flow

encapsulation of ketoprofen in copolymer microbeads via co-axial

microfluidic device: Influence of operating and material parameters on

drug carrier properties. Int J Pharm 2013;441(1-2):809-17.

Meneguin AB, Cury BS, Evangelista RC. Films from resistant starchpectin

dispersions intended for colonic drug delivery. Carbohydr Polym


Das A, Ghosh S, Ray AR. Unveiling the self-assembly behavior of

copolymers of AAc and DMAPMA in situ. Polymer 2011;52:3800-10.

Kim YH, Ramesh BV, Thangadurai DT, Rao KS, Cha HR, Kim CD, et

al. Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial applications of novel

copolymeric silver nanocomposite hydrogels. Bull Korean Chem Soc


El-Hag Ali A. In situ formation of hydroxyapatite within gelatin based

copolymer hydrogel prepared by ionizing radiation. J Macromol Sci

PartA: Pure Appl Chem 2012;49(1):7-14.

Sahoo S, Sahoo R, Palve YP, Nayak P. Synthesis and characterization of

tamarind-polyvinyl alcohol blended with cloisite 30B nanocomposite

for controlled release of the ocular drug timolol maleate. J Pharm

Biomed Sci 2012;22(15):2230-7885.

Verreck G, Chun I, Rosenblatt J, Peeters J, Dijck AV, Mensch J,

et al. Incorporation of drugs in an amorphous state into electrospun

nanofibers composed of a water-insoluble, nonbiodegradable polymer.

J Control Release 2003;92(3):349-60.

Toncheva A, Paneva D, Manolova N, Rashkov I. Macromol Res


Demirci S, Celebioglu A, Aytac Z, Uyar T. pH-responsive nanofibers

with controlled drug release properties. Polym Chem 2014;5:2050-6.

Rajesh AM, Bhattp SA, Ramana GV, Brahmbhatt H, Gajjar K,

Tripathi CB, et al. Taste masking by functional cross-linked copolymers

and sustain release of drug through interpenetrating polymer network

with sodium alginate and Κ-Carreganeen biopolymers. Int J Pharm

Pharm Sci 2014;6(11).

Mallikarjuna B, Rao MK, Prasad CV, Chowdoji Rao K, Krishana

Rao KS, Subha MC. Synthesis, characterization and use of poly

(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N-vinylcaprolactam) crosslinked

thermoresponsive microspheres for control release of ciproflaxin

hydrochloride drug. J Appl Pharm Sci 2011;01(06):171-7.

Al-Qudah YH. Swelling and drug release properties of starch based

copolymer hydrogel prepared by ionizing radiation. Arab J Nucl Sci

Appl 2012;45(2):179-85.

Hudson SP, Langer R, Fink GR, Kohane DS. Injectable in situ

cross-linking hydrogels for local antifungal therapy. Biomaterials




How to Cite

Maziad, N. A., S. El-hamouly, E. Zied, T. A El Kelani, and N. Rabie Nasef. “RADIATION PREPARATION OF SMART HYDROGEL HAS ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES FOR CONTROLLED RELEASE OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 8, no. 3, May 2015, pp. 193-00, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/5258.



Original Article(s)