ANTIULCER AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM HOOKERII: AN ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANT OF MANIPUR
objective: To evaluate the antiulcer and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of Allium hookerii (MEAH) leaves.
Methods: In vivo antiulcer activity of MEAH was evaluated at two dose levels of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight by pyloric ligation, ethanol
(EtOH) induced ulcer and indomethacin-induced ulcer models through estimation of gastric contents viz. gastric volume, pH, free acidity, total acidity,
total hexoses, hexosamine, fucose and total protein. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) assay,
reducing power assay, superoxide radical scavenging activity, and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity. Histopathology of the stomach was
studied using hematoxylin and eosin stained sections.
Results: A significant decrease in ulcer index and increase in percentage protection in ulcerated rats. After 7 days of treatment, the pH, free acidity
and total acidity decreased, thereby increased the content of total hexoses, hexosamine, fucose and total protein in the gastric content. MEAH showed
a significant antioxidative effect in DPPH, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging but showed very low effect
in reducing power assay. Histopathological studies of the stomach in ulcer and treated groups substantiate the cytoprotective action of extract in EtOH
induced ulcer animals.
Conclusions: It can be concluded from the research work that A. hookerii has potent antiulcer activity and supports the in vitro antioxidative status.
Keywords: Antisecretory, Antiulcer, Cytoprotection, Antioxidants, Allium hookerii.
2. Piper DW, Stiel DD. Pathogenesis of chronic peptic ulcer, current thinking and clinical implications. Medical Progress, 1986; 2: 7â€“10.
3. Akthar MS, Akthar AH, Khan MA. Antiulcerogenic effects of Ocimum basilicum extracts, volatile oils and flavanoids glycosides in albino rats. International Journal of Pharmacognosy 1992; 30: 97â€“104.
4. Repetto MG, Llesuy SF. Antioxidant properties of natural compounds used in popular medicines for gastric ulcers. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 2002; 35: 523â€“534.
5. Dhuley JN. Protective effect of Rhinax, a herbal formulation against physical and chemical factors induced gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 1999; 31: 128â€“132.
6. Victor Ayam. Allium hookerii Thw. Enum. A lesser known terrestrial perennial herb used as food and its ethnobotanical relevance in Manipur. African Journal of Food, Agriculture,Nutrition and Development, 2011; 11(6): 5389-5412.
7. Sukumar S. The Economic plants of Manipur and their uses, 2009.
8. Kshetrimayum Birla Singh, Nongmaithem Mohondas Singh. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Allium hookeri Thwaites Roots extract studied using In Vitro models, 2014; 4(1): 275-285.
9. Trease GE, Evans WC, Pharmacognosy, Bailliere Tindall Press; London. 1983 p. 309-706.
10. OECD. OECD guideline for the testing of chemicals. Acute oral toxicity-acute toxic class method. Paris: OECD; 2002. [Online] Available from: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/ download/9742301e.pdf?expires=1411176667&id=id&accnam e=guest&checksum=DAABEB4BAE334B030523045CE1467D9B [Accessed on 17th May, 2014]
11. Shay H, Komarov SA, Fels SS, Meranze D, Gruenstein M, Siplet H. A simple method for the uniform production of gastric ulceration. Gastroenterology, 1945; 5: 43â€“61.
12. Debnath PK, Gode KD, Govinda DD, Sanyal A. Effect of Propanolol on gastric secretion in albino rats. Br J Pharmacol, 1974; 51: 213.
13. Sanyal AK, Mitra PK, Goel RK. A modified method to estimate dissolved mucosubstances in gastric juice. Indian J Exp. Biology, 1983; 21: 78.
14. Hollander D, Tarnawski A, Krause WJ, Gergely H. Protective effect of sucralfate against alcohol-induced gastric mucosal injury in the rat. Gastroenterology, 1985; 88: 366.
15. Goel RK, Das DG, Sanyal AK. Effect of vegetable banana power changes induced by ulerogenic agents on dissolved mucosubstances in gastric juice. Indian J of Gastroenterol, 1985; 4: 249.
16. Sadhu SK, Okuyama E, Fujimoto H, Ishibashi M. Separation of Leucas aspera, a medicinal plant of Bangladesh, guided by prostaglandin inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Chemical Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2003; 51: 595-98.
17. Halliwell B. Use of desferrioxamine as a probe for iron-dependent formation of hydroxyl radicals. Evidence for a direct reaction between desferal and the superoxide radical. Biochemical Pharmacology, 1985; 34: 229-233.
18. Wang SY, Kuo YH, Chang HN, Tsay HS, Lin KF, Yang NS, Shyur LF. Profiling and characterization of antioxidant activities in Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata. Journal of Agricultural and. Food Chemistry, 2002; 50: 1859-1865.
19. Chang C,Yang M, Wen H, Chern J. Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Analysis, 2002; 10: 178-182.
20. Kehar U, Wahi PN. Cytologic and histologic behavior patterns of the premalignant lesions of the cervix in experimentally induced cervical dysplasia. Acta Cytologica, 1967; 11: 1-15.
21. Tsukimi Y, Okabe S. Recent advances in gastrointestinal pathophysiology: role of heat shock proteins in mucosal defense and ulcer healing. Biol Pharm Bull, 2004; 241: 1-9.
22. Thirunavukkarasu P, Ramkumar L, Ramanathan T. Anti-ulcer Activity of Excoecaria agallocha bark on NSAID-induced Gastric Ulcer in Albino Rats. Global Journal of Pharmacology, 2009; 3(3): 123-126.
23. Jainu M, Devi CS. Antiulcerogenic and ulcer healing effects of Solanum nigrum on experimental ulcer models: Possible mechanism for the inhibition of acid formation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2006; 104: 156-163.
24. Terano A, Hiraishi H, Ota S, Shiga J, Sugimoto T. Role of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in rat gastric mucosal injury induced by ethanol. Gastroenterologia Japonica, 1989; 24: 488-493.
25. Baggio CH, Freitas CS, Rieck L and Margues MCA. Gastroprotective effects of a crude extract of Baccharis illinita DC in rats. Pharmacol Res, 2003; 47: 93â€“98.
26. Williams SE and Turnberg LA. Retardation of acid diffusion by pig gastric mucus: a potential role in mucosal protection. Gastroenterol, 1980; 79: 299-304.
27. Bell AE, Sellers LA, Allen A, Cunliffe WJ, Morris ER and Ross- Murphy SB. Properties of gastric and duodenal mucus: effect of proteolysis, disulphide reductions, bile, acid, ethanol, and hyper tonicity on mucus gel structure. Gasteroenterol, 1985; 88: 269-/280.
28. Witaicenis EF, Roldao LN, Seito NP and Di Stasi LC. Pharmacological and toxicological studies of Drimys angustifolia Miers. (Winteraceae). J of Ethnopharmacol, 2007; 111: 541â€“546.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.