• ROOPADEVI HS Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya, Karnataka, India.
  • RAMESH KN Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya, Karnataka, India.


objectives: (1) To study the prescription pattern of psychotropic drugs amongst patients attending the psychiatry outpatient department (OPD) in a
tertiary care hospital, Mandya, (2) to evaluate patterns and recent trends in psychotropic polypharmacy.
Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional and observational study, done over 8 weeks, among patients attending psychiatry OPD. The most recent
prescribed psychopharmacological medication of the patients were collected in a standard proforma and analyzed according to World Health Organization
(WHO) prescription indicators. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation were used wherever appropriate.
Results: A total of 405 prescriptions were evaluated. Anti-epileptics (22.9%), antidepressants (19.7%) and antipsychotics (11.0%) were the commonly
advocated drug groups in more than half of prescriptions. Phenobarbitone (30.2%), escitalopram (27.9%), and risperidone (48.9%) were commonly used
drugs among anti-epileptics, antidepressants, and antipsychotics, respectively. Nutraceuticals constituted 8.7% of total drugs. Percentage of drugs prescribed
by generic name was 54.9%. Polypharmacy was prevalent in 2.7% of prescriptions. Percentage of drugs prescribed as fixed-dose combination was 21%.
Conclusion: The WHO guidelines regarding prescription of drugs were followed consistently. The issue of prescribing by brand names need to be
addressed. Polypharmacy was advocated for negligible number of subjects and the reasons were justifiable.
Keywords: Prescription audit, Polypharmacy, Psychopharmacological agent.

Author Biographies

ROOPADEVI HS, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya, Karnataka, India.


RAMESH KN, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya, Karnataka, India.



Deshmukh SA, Ismail TS. Evaluation of psychotropic drugs use pattern

among out patients attending psychiatry department at Government

Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur: A cross sectional study. Int J

Pharm Bio Sci 2012;3(3):428-36.

Sarkar P, Chakraborty K, Misra A, Shukla R, Swain SP. Pattern of

psychotropic prescription in a tertiary care center: A critical analysis.

Indian J Pharmacol 2013;45(3):270-3.

Abdulraheem IS. Polypharmacy: A risk factor for geriatric syndrome,

morbidity and mortality. Aging Sci 2013;1(2):1-3.

Schaefer K, Maerkedahl H, Birk HO, Henriksen LO. Polypharmacy in

general practice. Dan Med Bull 2010;57(7):A4165.

Bruggemann BR, Elgeti H, Ziegenbein M. Patterns of drug prescription

in a psychiatric outpatient care unit: The issue of polypharmacy. Ger J

Psychiatry 2008;11:1-6.

Salman S, Ismail M, Awan NR, Anees M. Patterns of prescription

writing in psychiatric clinics. J Postgrad Med Inst 2013;27(3):290-6.

Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 8, Issue 5, 2015, 299-302

Roopadevi et al.

Elizabeth ST, Kia RA, Yagnik RM, Nagaraju K. Prescribing pattern of

antiepileptic drugs in adults in a South Indian tertiary care hospital.

Indian J Pharm Pract 2012;5(1):52-6.

Lim S, Tan E, Chen C. Pattern of anti-epileptic drug usage in a tertiary

referral hospital in Singapore. Neurol J Southeast Asia 1997;2:77-85.

Vettikkadan AR, Jith A, Krishnaveni K, Kumar SR. Study of utilization

pattern and drug interactions of anti-epileptic drugs in a private hospital.

Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7(5):164-6.

Assis TR, Nascimento OJ, Costa G, Bacellar A. Antiepileptic drugs

patterns in elderly inpatients in a Brazilian tertiary center, Salvador,

Brazil. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2014;72(11):874-80.

Pal A, Prusty SK, Sahu PK, Swain T. Drug utilization pattern of

antiepileptic drugs: A pharmacoepidemiologic and pharmacovigilance

study in a tertiary teaching hospital in India. Asian J Pharm Clin Res


Ferrer P, Rafaniello C, Sabate M, Ballarin E, Coma A, Zara C,

et al. Cross-national comparison of antiepileptic drug use: Catalonia,

Denmark and Norway, 2007-2011. Epidemiol Biostat Public Health


Bauer M, Monz BU, Montejo AL, Quail D, Dantchev N, Demyttenaere K,

et al. Prescribing patterns of antidepressants in Europe: Results from

the Factors Influencing Depression Endpoints Research (FINDER)

study. Eur Psychiatry 2008;23(1):66-73.

Mishra S, Swain T, Mohanty M. Patterns of prescription and efficacy

evaluation of antidepressants in a tertiary care teaching hospital in

Eastern India. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5(3):193-6.

Grover S, Avasth A, Kalita K, Dalal PK, Rao GP, Chadda RK, et al.

IPS multicentric study: Antidepressant prescription patterns. Indian J

Psychiatry 2013;55(1):41-5.

Uchida N, Chong MY, Tan CH, Nagai H, Tanaka M, Lee MS, et al.

International study on antidepressant prescription pattern at 20 teaching

hospitals and major psychiatric institutions in East Asia: Analysis

of 1898 cases from China, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan.

Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2007;61(5):522-8.

Avanthi E, Somashekar HS, Kumar LP, Sushma HK, Sudarshan CY,

Raja B. Prescribing pattern of antidepressants in psychiatric unit of a

tertiary care hospital. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014;3(4):667-70.

Dunlop BW, Davis PG. Combination treatment with benzodiazepines

and SSRIs for comorbid anxiety and depression: A review. Prim Care

Companion J Clin Psychiatry 2008;10(3):222-8.

Furukawa TA, Streiner DL, Young LT. Antidepressant plus

benzodiazepine for major depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev


Khaja KA, Al-Haddad MK, Sequeira RP, Al-Offi AR. Antipsychotic

and anticholinergic drug prescribing pattern in psychiatry: Extent of

evidence-based practice in Bahrain. Pharmacol Pharm 2012;3:409-16.

Siddhartha G, Swati B, Kumar DC. Antipsychotic prescribing

pattern in a tertiary care hospital of Eastern India. J Drug Deliv Ther


Banerjee I, Roy B, Sathian B, Banerjee I, Chakraborty PK, Saha A.

Socio demographic profile and utilization pattern of antipsychotic

drugs among schizophrenic inpatients: A cross sectional study from

western region of Nepal. BMC Psychiatry 2013;13(96):1-10.

Grover S, Kumar V, Avasthi A, Kulhara P. An audit of first prescription

of new patients attending a psychiatry walk-in-clinic in north India.

Indian J Pharmacol 2012;44(3):319-25.

Trivedi JK, Sareen H, Yadav VS, Rai SB. Prescription pattern of mood

stabilizers for bipolar disorder at a tertiary health care centre in north

India. Indian J Psychiatry 2013;55(2):131-4.

Gaida R, Truter I. Prescribing patterns for Parkinson’s disease in a

South African patient population. J Appl Pharm Sci 2014;4(03):029-34.

Balhara YP, Yadav T, Kataria DK. An exploratory study of nutraceutical

prescriptionpattern among psychiatric patients in an out-patient setting.

J Med Nutr Nutraceuticals 2012;1(2):106-10.

Vooss AT, Diefenthaeler HS. Evaluation of prescription indicators

established by the WHO in Getulio Vargas – RS. Braz J Pham Sci


Vries TP, Henning RH, Hogerzeil H, Fresle DA. WHO guide to good

prescribing. Available from:

pdf/whozip23e/whozip23e.pdf. [Last accessed on 2015 Jan 08].



How to Cite

HS, R., R. KN, and N. H. “PATTERN OF PSYCHOTROPIC PRESCRIPTION IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 8, no. 5, Sept. 2015, pp. 252-5,



Original Article(s)