• Nimisha - Asstt Prof II, Amity University uttar pradesh, lucknow
  • Khushboo Srivastava
  • Amrit Kumar Singh


Objective: The objective of present research work is develop an ethosome as a carrier system for 75% ethanolic SBT leaf extract, its incorporation
in to gel formulations and to characterize the prepared is to develop ethosomes and gel formulations using various parameters including estimation
of total phenol content in terms of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE). Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoids. SBT) is a cold desert medicinal plant, and has
high antioxidant content, especially phenol content. There are many reports revealing pharmacological potential of SBT extracts, however, only few
literature reports highlight the conversion of these extract in to suitable dosage.

Methods: Twelve batches (F1 – F12) of ethosomes were prepared using Soyaphosphatidylcholine (SPC) (1-3%) and ethanol (10-40%). Carbopol
934P was used to prepare ethosomal gel. The range of entrapment efficiency (EE) of ethosomes was 51.05%-91.09%, polydispersity index (PDI)
ranges between 0.041-0.392 and vesicle size from 96.98 nm to 395 nm. Four ethosomal batches were selected on the basis of EE and PDI to be used for
further incorporation in to 4 gel formulations (G1, G2, G3 & G4, respectively). Prepared gels were then evaluated for their physicochemical properties,
drug content and diffusion characteristics.

Results: The pH of the gel formulations was found to be in the range of 6.2 to 6.6. Viscosities of the gels were ranging between 4900 - 4550 centipoises.
The drug content of the gels ranged between 46.47% - 82.47%. The cumulative release of ethosomal gel was maximum in G4 formulation (94.34%)
and minimum in G1 (70.75%). These ethosomes, when converted in to gels, were found to show good physicochemical properties, drug content and
diffusion pattern.

Conclusion: The present study revealed ethosomal gel as an efficient carrier for herbal extract.
Keywords: Ethanol, Hippophae rhamnoides, Soyaphosphatidylcholine, Total phenol content.

Author Biographies

Nimisha -, Asstt Prof II, Amity University uttar pradesh, lucknow
Asstt Prof II,  Amity institute of pharmacy, Amity University uttar pradesh, lucknow
Khushboo Srivastava
Asstt Prof II,  Amity institute of pharmacy, Amity University uttar pradesh, lucknow


1. Touitou E, Dayan N, Bergelson L, Godin B, Eliaz M. Ethosomes — novel vesicular carriers for enhanced delivery: characterization and skin penetration properties. Journal of Controlled Release 2000; 65: 403–18.
2. Nimisha, Namita. Development and Evaluation of Herbal Cosmeceutical For Skin Care. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2013; 4(2): 86-2.
3. Jordan SA, DG Cunningham, RJ Marles. Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2010; 243: 198-16.
4. Kesarwani K, Gupta R. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2013; 3(4): 253-66.
5. Geetha S, Ram MS, Mongia SS, Singh V, Ilavazahagan G, Sawhney RC. Anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory properties of Hippophae rhamnoides, an in vitro study. J Ethnopharmacol 2002; 79: 373-78.
6. Saggu S, Divekar HM, Gupta V, Sawhney RC, Banerjee PK, Kumar R. Adaptogenic and safety evaluation of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L) leaf extract; A dose dependant study. Food Chem Toxicol 2007; 45: 609-17.
7. Geetha S, Jayamurthy P, Pal K, Pandey S, Kumar R, Sawhney RC. 2008. Hepatoprotective effects of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 2008; 8: 1592–97.

8. Maheshwari DT, Kumar YMS, Verma SK, Singh VK, Singh SN. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of phenolic rich fraction of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves. Food Chem Toxicol 2011; 49(9): 2422-8.
9. Singh AK, Paul AD, Naved T. Boiactivity guided extraction of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.ssp. turkestanica) leaves. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 2012; 72: 307-11.
10. Kushwaha S, Kushwaha N, Maurya N, Rai AK. Role of Markers in the Standardization of Herbal Drugs: A Review. Archives of Applied Science Research. 2010; 2: 225-29.
11. Singleton, V. L. & Rossi, J. A., Colorimetric of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents Am J Enol Vitic, 16 (1965), 144-58.
12. Dayan N, Touitou E. Carriers for skin delivery of trihexyphenidyl HCl: Ethosomes vs. Liposomes. Biomaterials 2000; 21: 1879-85.
13. Misal G, Dixit G, Gulkari V. Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Gel. Indian Journal of Natural Products & Research 2012; 3(4): 501-05.
14. Elsayed MM, Abdallah OY, Naggar VF, Khalafallah NM. Lipid vesicles for skin delivery of drugs: reviewing three decades of research. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2007; 332: 1–16.
15. Ram A, Verma S, Irfan M, Preparation And Characterization of Ibuprofen Loaded Transferosome As A Novel Carrier For Transdermal Drug Delivery System. AJPCR 2012;5(3):162-65
16. Dave V, Kumar D, Lewis S, Paliwal S, Ethosome for Enhanced Transdermal Drug Delivery of Aceclofenac. International Journal of Drug Delivery 2010; 2:81-92.
307 Views | 1031 Downloads
How to Cite
-, N., K. Srivastava, and A. K. Singh. “FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SEABUCKTHORN LEAF EXTRACT LOADED ETHOSOMAL GEL.”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 8, no. 5, Sept. 2015, pp. 316-9,
Original Article(s)