• SOWMYA VARADHAN Pushpagiri Institute of Medical Science and Research Centre,Thiruvalla,Kerala,India.


Objectives: The present study was done to evaluate and compare the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein (TG/HDL) ratio in subjects with diabetes
mellitus (DM) and diabetic prone subjects (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]) with normal subjects without diabetes. An attempt was also made to
correlate TG/HDL with markers of liver injury such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP).
Methods: Lab data of 496 patients attending Pushpagiri medical health checkup were obtained. The subjects were grouped into DM: (fasting plasma
glucose >126 mg/dl), IGT: (Fasting plasma glucose: 110-126 mg/dl) and normal: (fasting plasma glucose < 110 mg/dl).
Results: Statistically significant difference were observed in levels of TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), TG/HDL ratio, AST, ALP between diabetes, IGT
and normal subjects. Statistical significance within the groups was tested using post-hoc Analysis. The level of TG and TG/HDL ratio was significantly
higher in subjects with DM compared to normal subjects. The mean value of total cholesterol and LDL-C was found to be higher in normal subjects
than in DM and IGT. AST, ALP values were found to be significantly higher in subjects with IGT than normal subjects.
Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that TG and TG/HDL ratio were high in DM and IGT than subjects with normal plasma glucose. Liver
injury marker enzymes were found to be high in IGT and is correlated with TG/HDL ratio in DM.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Impaired glucose tolerance, Hypertriglyceridemia, Triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein ratio, Markers of liver injury.

Author Biography

SOWMYA VARADHAN, Pushpagiri Institute of Medical Science and Research Centre,Thiruvalla,Kerala,India.

Assisstant Professor,

Department of Biochemistry,

Pushpagiri Institute of Medical Science and Research Centre,Thiruvalla,Kerala,India.


1. Gopal L, Sharma T. Use of intravitreal injection of triamcinolone
acetonide in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Indian
J Ophthalmol 2007;55(6):431-5.
2. Sarao V, Veritti D, Boscia F, Lanzetta P. Intravitreal steroids for the
treatment of retinal diseases. ScientificWorldJournal 2014;2014:989501.
3. Tewari HK, Sony P, Chawla R, Garg SP, Venkatesh P. Prospective
evaluation of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection in macular
edema associated with retinal vascular disorders. Eur J Ophthalmol
4. Jonas JB, Akkoyun I, Kreissig I, Degenring RF. Diffuse diabetic macular
oedema treated by intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide. A comparative
nonrandomized study. Br J Ophthalmol 2005;89:321-6.
5. Greenberg PB, Martidis A, Rogers AH, Duker JS, Reichel E. Intravitreal
triamcinolone acetonide for macular oedema due to central retinal vein
occlusion. Br J Ophthalmol 2002;86(2):247-8.
6. Karacorlu M, Ozdemir H, Karacorlu S. Intravitreal triamcinolone
acetonide for the treatment of central retinal vein occlusion in young
patients. Retina 2004;24(2):324-7.
7. Jonas JB, Söfker A. Intraocular injection of crystalline cortisone as
adjunctive treatment of diabetic macular edema. Am J Ophthalmol
8. Martidis A, Duker JS, Greenberg PB, Rogers AH, Puliafito CA,
Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 8, Issue 6, 2015, 157-160
Jain et al
Reichel E, et al. Intravitreal triamcinolone for refractory diabetic
macular edema. Ophthalmology 2002;109(5):920-7.
9. Jonas JB, Kreissig I, Söfker A, Degenring RF. Intravitreal injection of
triamcinolone for diffuse diabetic macular edema. Arch Ophthalmol
10. Massin P, Audren F, Haouchine B, Erginay A, Bergmann JF,
Benosman R, et al. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic
diffuse macular edema: Preliminary results of a prospective controlled
trial. Ophthalmology 2004;111(2):218-24.
11. Penfold PL, Gyory JF, Hunyor AB, Billson FA. Exudative macular
degeneration and intravitreal triamcinolone. A pilot study. Aust N Z J
Ophthalmol 1995;23(4):293-8.
12. Danis RP, Ciulla TA, Pratt LM, Anliker W. Intravitreal triamcinolone
acetonide in exudative age-related macular degeneration. Retina
13. Jonas JB, Kreissig I, Degenring R. Repeated intravitreal injections of
triamcinolone acetonide as treatment of progressive exudative agerelated
Clin Exp Ophthalmol
14. Gillies MC, Simpson JM, Luo W, Penfold P, Hunyor AB, Chua W, et al.
A randomized clinical trial of a single dose of intravitreal triamcinolone
acetonide for neovascular age-related macular degeneration: One-year
results. Arch Ophthalmol 2003;121(5):667-73.
15. Jonas JB, Akkoyun I, Budde WM, Kreissig I, Degenring RF. Intravitreal
reinjection of triamcinolone for exudative age-related macular
degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol 2004;122(2):218-22.
16. Jonas JB, Söfker A. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for cataract
surgery with iris neovascularization. J Cataract Refract Surg
17. Jonas JB, Hayler JK, Söfker A, Panda-Jonas S. Regression of
neovascular iris vessels by intravitreal injection of crystalline cortisone.
J Glaucoma 2001;10(4):284-7.
18. Jonas JB, Hayler JK, Panda-Jonas S. Intravitreal injection of crystalline
cortisone as treatment of pre-phthisical ocular hypotony. Graefes Arch
Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2001;239(6):464-5.
19. Rodriguez ML, Juarez CP, Luna JD. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide
injection in blind painful eyes. Intraocular steroids as a treatment for
blind painful red eyes. Eur J Ophthalmol 2003;13(3):292-7.
20. McCuen BW 2
, Bessler M, Tano Y, Chandler D, Machemer R. The
lack of toxicity of intravitreally administered triamcinolone acetonide.
Am J Ophthalmol 1981;91(6):785-8.
21. Gillies MC, Simpson JM, Billson FA, Luo W, Penfold P, Chua W, et al.
Safety of an intravitreal injection of triamcinolone: Results from a
randomized clinical trial. Arch Ophthalmol 2004;122(3):336-40.
22. Wingate RJ, Beaumont PE. Intravitreal triamcinolone and elevated
intraocular pressure. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol 1999;27(6):431-2.
23. Moshfeghi DM, Kaiser PK, Scott IU, Sears JE, Benz M, Sinesterra JP,
et al. Acute endophthalmitis following intravitreal triamcinolone
acetonide injection. Am J Ophthalmol 2003;136(5):791-6.
24. Jager RD, Aiello LP, Patel SC, Cunningham ET Jr. Risks of intravitreous
injection: A comprehensive review. Retina 2004;24(5):676-98.
25. Androudi S, Letko E, Meniconi M, Papadaki T, Ahmed M, Foster CS.
Safety and efficacy of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for uveitic
macular edema. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2005;13(2-3):205-12.
26. Jonas JB, Degenring RF, Kreissig I, Akkoyun I, Kamppeter BA.
Intraocular pressure elevation after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide
injection. Ophthalmology 2005;112(4):593-8.
27. Couch SM, Bakri SJ. Intravitreal triamcinolone for intraocular
inflammation and associated macular edema. Clin Ophthalmol
28. Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE. Visual impairment in diabetes.
Ophthalmology 1984;91(1):1-9.
29. Sharareh B, Gallemore R, Taban M, Onishi S, Wallsh J. Recalcitrant
macular edema after intravitreal bevacizumab is responsive to an
intravitreal dexamethasone implant in retinal vein occlusion. Retina
30. Barnes PJ. Anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids: Molecular
mechanisms. Clin Sci (Lond) 1998;94(6):557-72.
31. Jonas JB, Kreissig I, Hugger P, Sauder G, Panda-Jonas S, Degenring R.
Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for exudative age related macular
degeneration. Br J Ophthalmol 2003;87(4):462-8.
32. Wilson CA, Berkowitz BA, Sato Y, Ando N, Handa JT, de Juan E
Jr. Treatment with intravitreal steroid reduces blood-retinal barrier
breakdown due to retinal photocoagulation. Arch Ophthalmol
33. Nauck M, Karakiulakis G, Perruchoud AP, Papakonstantinou E,
Roth M. Corticosteroids inhibit the expression of the vascular
endothelial growth factor gene in human vascular smooth muscle cells.
Eur J Pharmacol 1998;341(2-3):309-15.
34. Penfold PL, Wen L, Madigan MC, Gillies MC, King NJ, Provis JM.
Triamcinolone acetonide modulates permeability and intercellular
adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression of the ECV304 cell
line: Implications for macular degeneration. Clin Exp Immunol
35. Floman N, Zor U. Mechanism of steroid action in ocular inflammation:
Inhibition of prostaglandin production. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
36. Lewis GD, Campbell WB, Johnson AR. Inhibition of prostaglandin
synthesis by glucocorticoids in human endothelial cells. Endocrinology
37. Couch SM, Bakri SJ. Use of triamcinolone during vitrectomy surgery to
visualize membranes and vitreous. Clin Ophthalmol 2008;2(4):891-6.
38. Vedantham V, Kim R. Intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide
for diabetic macular edema: Principles and practice. Indian J
Ophthalmol 2006;54(2):133-7.
39. Pickrell A, Harris A, Ngo S, Amireskandari A, Stewart E, Siesky B.
Delivery of intraocular triamcinolone acetonide in the treatment of
macular edema. Pharmaceutics 2012;4(1):230-42.
40. Jonas JB, Hayler JK, Panda-Jonas S. Intravitreal injection of crystalline
cortisone as adjunctive treatment of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Br J
Ophthalmol 2000;84(9):1064-7.
41. Jonas JB, Kreissig I, Kamppeter B, Degenring RF. Intravitreal
triamcinolone acetonide for the treatment of intraocular edematous and
neovascular diseases. Ophthalmologe 2004;101(2):113-20.
42. Munir WM, Pulido JS, Sharma MC, Buerk BM. Intravitreal
triamcinolone for treatment of complicated proliferative diabetic
retinopathy and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Can J Ophthalmol
43. Choi YJ, Oh IK, Oh JR, Huh K. Intravitreal versus posterior subtenon
injection of triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic macular edema.
Korean J Ophthalmol 2006;20(4):205-9.
44. Jonas JB, Spandau UH, Harder B, Vossmerbaeumer U, Kamppeter BA.
Inter-eye difference in exudative age-related macular degeneration with
minimally classic or occult subfoveal neovascularization after unilateral
intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide. Am J Ophthalmol
45. Smithen LM, Ober MD, Maranan L, Spaide RF. Intravitreal
triamcinolone acetonide and intraocular pressure. Am J Ophthalmol
46. Park HY, Yi K, Kim HK. Intraocular pressure elevation after
intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection. Korean J Ophthalmol
123 Views | 309 Downloads
How to Cite
VARADHAN, S., and S. SIMON A. “RATIO OF TRIGLYCERIDES TO HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL AND MARKERS OF LIVER INJURY IN DIABETES MELLITUS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 8, no. 6, Oct. 2015, pp. 199-01, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ajpcr/article/view/8233.
Original Article(s)