INFLUENCE OF PROCESSING ON PHYSIOCHEMICAL, NUTRITIONAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CARISSA SPINARUM (KARONDA) FRUIT


Ambika Chauhan, Beenu Tanwar, Intelli Arneja

Abstract


Objective: In this study, the effects of three different processing methods, sun drying, freezing, microwave drying, and fresh fruits of Carissa spinarum
in terms of physical, nutritional and phytochemical composition have been studied.
Methods: These local variety of fruits were selected from Himachal (India). These fruits were obtained fresh, cleaned, and washed prior to selected
techniques.
Results: As we see from, the results in Tables showed that drying techniques improved the protein, carbohydrates, ash content, dietary fiber (neutral
detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin), total phenol, antioxidant activities, and mineral content. Drying destroyed
total flavonoids, tannin, alkaloid, and anthocyanin content.
Conclusions: The findings of the research is clearly indicated that some processing methods are proved good for more nutrient retension as compared
to others. This study aim to make consumers aware about the effects of processing methods on nutritional value of fruits and study will help people to
generate awareness for the intake of these underutilized fruits in their daily diet increase nutritional status in a better way.
Keywords: Sun drying, Freezing, Microwave drying, Carissa spinarum.


| PDF |

References


. Dragsted LO, Strube M, Larsen JC. Cancer-protective factors in fruits

and vegetables: Biochemical and biological background. Pharmacol

Toxicol 1993;72 Suppl 1:116-35.

Lodhi F, Bradley MV, Crane JC. Auxins and gibberellin-like substances

in parthenocarpic and non-parthenocarpic syconia of Ficus carica L.

cv. King. Plant Physiol 1969;44(4):555-61.

Marlett JA. Content and composition of dietary fiber in 117 frequently

consumed foods. J Diet Fiber Human Nutr 1992;92(2):363-431.

Gajana TM, Gowda IN, Reddy BM. Exploring market potential and

developing. A case of underutilized fruit products in India. Agric Econ

Res Rev 2010;3:437-43.

Hegde K, Thakker SP, Joshi AB, Shastry CS, Chandrashekhar KS.

Anticonvulsant activity of Carissa spinarum Linn. Root extract in

experimental mice. Trop J Pharm Res 2009;8(2):117-25.

Vinson JA. Functional food properties of figs. Cereal Foods World

;44(2):82-7.

Emmy H, Khairul I, Khoo HE, Abbe MJ, Amin I, Salman I, et al.

Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of Malaysian

underutilized fruits. J Food Compos Anal 2009;22:388-93.

Mohsenin N. Physical Properties of Plant and Animal Materials.

New York, USA: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers; 1970.

Mohsenin N. Physical Properties of Plant and Animal Materials.

New York: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers; 1986.

Gezer IH, Demir F. Some physical properties of Hacihaliloglu apricot

pit and kernel. J Food Eng 2002;56:49-57.

AOAC. Spectrophotometric method. Official Method of Analysis

International. 2000;7(2):161-4.

Hedge JE, Hofreiter BT. Carbohydrate chemistry its stability in model

systems. J Food Sci Technol 1962;30(4):246-8.

Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB. What is fibre and fibre in food? Nutr Rev

;35(3):12-22.

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Department of Ayurveda

Yoga and Neuropathy, Unani Siddhana Homeopathy. 1

ed., Vol. VI.

New Delhi: AYUSH; 2008. p. 340.

st

Thimmaiah SK. Standard Methods of Biochemical Analysis.

New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers; 1999.

Kekuda PT, Shobha KS, Onkarappa R. Studies on antioxidant and

anthelmintic activity of two Streptomyces species isolated from Western

Ghat soils of Agumbe, Karnataka. J Pharmacol Resour 2010;3(1):26-9.

Luximon RA, Bahorum T, Soobratee MA, Aruoma OI. Antioxidant

activities of the fig-Ficus carica L. Cutis 2002;69:339-40.

Guisti M, Wrolstad RE. Characterization and measurement of

anthocyanins by UV-Visible spectroscopy. Current protocols in food

analytical chemistry. Am Diet Assoc 2001;92:175-286.

Herborne JB. Phytochemical Methods. London: Chapman and Hall;

Iwuoha CI, Kalu FA. Calcium oxalate and physico-chemical properties

of cocoyam (Colocasia esculents and Xanthosoma saqiltifolnim) tuber

flours as affected by processing. Food Chem 1995;54:61-2.

Amreen F, Prem PS, Parul A, Raghuveer I, Shashi A, Amita V.

Treatment of various diseases by Carissa spinarum L. promising shrub.

Int J Pharm Sci Res 2013;4(7):2489-95.

Milovan Z, Sveto R, Radojka M, Milos N, Nada K. Effect of

temperature on the physical changes and drying kinetics in plum

(Prunus domestica L.) Pozegaca variety. Chem Ind Chem Eng Q

;17(3):283-9.

Işık E, Izli N. Physical properties of sunflower seeds (Helianthus

annuus L.). Int J Agric Res 2007;2(8):677-86.

Aleid SM, Elansari AM, Tang ZX, Sallam AA. Effect of cold storage

and packing type on Khalas and Sukkary dates quality. Adv J Food Sci

Technol 2014;6(5):603-8.

Din K. Physico-chemical properties fruit Karonda (Carissa carandas)

Dans fat works Pastilnya 2008, (QK495K452008 FRB).

Baryeh EA. Physical properties of millet. J Food Eng 2002;51:39-46.

Ratti C. Shrinkage during drying of foodstuffs. J Food Eng

;23(1):91-105.

Pacco HC, Vingneault C, Castro LR, Menegalli FC, Cortez LA.

Temperature effect on drying of Gigntte de valinhos figs. J Food Agric

Environ 2007;5(20):70-5.

Elhana NH. Microwave drying of apple. J Agric Eng 2008;25(3):

-1003.

Ramaswamy HS, Tung MA. Thermophysical properties of apples in

relation to freezing. J Food Sci 1981;4:724.

Soni N, Mehta GS, Gupta RK. Estimation of nutritional, phytochemical,

antioxidant and anti-bacterial activity of dried Ficus carica. J Pharm

Phytochem 2014;32(2):158-65.

Morton JF. Fruits of Warm Climates. Winterville, N.C, USA: Creative

Resources Systems, Inc.; 1987. p. 503.

Sae-Kang V, Suphantharika M. Influence of P

and xanthan gum

addition on freeze thaw stability of tapioca starch pastes. Carbohydr

Polym 2006;65:371-80.

H

Mishra RM, Gupta P. Frugivory and seed dispersal of Carissa spinarum

(L.) in a tropical deciduous forest of central India. Int Soc Trop Ecol

;46(2):151-6.

Morris A, Barnett A, Burrows O. Effect of processing on nutrient

content of foods. Cajarticles 2004;37:160-4.

Ara R, Jahan S, Abdullah AT, Fakruddin AN, Saha BK. Physicochemical

properties

and

mineral content

of selected tropical

fruits

in

Bangladesh.

Bangladesh J Sci Ind Res 2014;49(3):131-6.

Mahapatra AK, Miashra S, Basak UC, Panda PC. Nutrient analysis

of some selected wild edible fruits of deciduous forests of India: An

explorative study towards non-conventional bio-nutrition. Adv J Food

Sci Technol 2012;4(1):15-21.

Clary CD, Meza MS, Wang S, Petrucci VE. Improving grape quality

using microwave vacuum drying associated with temperature control.

Food Eng Phys Properties 2007;72(1):E23-8.

Kyzlink V. Principles of food preservation. Amsterdam, The

Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers; 1990.

Fennema OR. Principles of food science. I. Food Chemistry. New York:

Marcel Dekker Inc.; 1975.

Desrosier N, Tressler D. Fundamentals of Food Freezing. Westport,

Connecticut: AVI Publishing Co. Inc.; 1977.

Brennan J, Butters J, Cowell N. Food Engineering Operations. London,

New York: Elsevier Applied Science; 1990.

Jul M. The Quality of Frozen Foods. London, Orlando: Academic

Press; 1984.

Rani B, Kawatra A. Fibre constituents of some foods. Plant Foods

Human Nutr 1994;45:343-7.

De Esclada Pla MF, Ponce NM, Stortz CA, Gerschenson LN,

Rojas AM. Composition and functional properties of enriched fiber

products obtained from pumpkin (Curcurbita moschata Duchesne ex

Poiret). LWT Food Sci Technol 2007;40:1176-85.

Fennema OR. Principles of food science. I. Food Chemistry. New York:

Marcel Dekker Inc.; 1976.

Khan A, Vincet JF. Mechanical damage induced by controlled freezing

in apple and potato. J Texture Stud 1996;27:143-53.

Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 8, Issue 6, 2015, 254-259

Chauhan et al.

Pewlong W, Sajjabut S, Eamsiri J, Chookaew S. Evaluation of

antioxidant activities, anthocyanins, total phenolic content, vitamin C

content and cytotoxicity of Carissa carandas Linn. Food Appl Biosci

;13(1):509-17.

Sablani S, Andrews P, Davies N, Walters T, Saez H. Drying methods

on phytochemical composition of orange fruit (Citrus sinensis, L.) peel

flour in biscuit making. J Environ Sci 2011;8(10):72-5.

Sarsavadia PN. Development of a solar-assisted dryer and evaluation

of energy requirement for the drying of onion. Renewable Energy

;32:2529-47.

Slatnar A, Klanchar U, Stampar F, Veberic R. Effect of drying figs

(Ficus carica L.) on the contents of sugars, organic acid and phenolic

compounds. J Agric Food Chem 2011;59:11696-702.

Arslan D, Ozcan M. Study the effect of sun, oven and microwave drying

on quality of onion slices. LWT Food Sci Technol 2010;43:1121-7.

Gupta S, Cox S, Abu- Ghannam N. Effect of different drying

temperatures on the moisture and phytochemical constitutents of edible

Irish brown seaweeds. LWT Food Sci Technol 2011;44(5):1-7.

Li BB, Smith B, Hossain MM. Extraction of phenolic from citrus peels:

I. Solvent extraction method. Sep Purifi Technol 2006;48:182-8.

Garau MC, Simal C, Femenia RA. Effect of air-drying temperature on

physico-chemical properties of dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity

of orange (Citrus aurantium v. Canoneta) byproducts. Food Chem

;104:1014-24.

Puuponen-Pimia R, Hakkinen ST, Aarni M, Suortti T, Lampi AM,

Eurola M. Blanching and long term freezing affect various bioactive

compounds of vegetables in different ways. J Sci Food Agric

;83:1389-402.

Itankar PR, Lokhande SJ, Verma PR, Arora SK, Patil AT.

Antidiabetic potential of unripe Carissa carandas Linn. fruit extract.

J Ethanopharmacol 2011;17:135(2),430-3.

Crozier A, Lean ME, Mc Donald MS, Black C. Quantitative analysis

of the flavonoid content of commercial tomatoes, onion, lettuice and

celery. J Agric Food Chem 1995;42:281-5.

Price KR, Rhodes MJ. Analysis of the major flavonoid glycosides

present in four varieties of onion and changing in composition resulting

from autolysis. J Sci Food Agric 1997;74:331-5.

Davey MW, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Sanmartin M, Kanellis A,

Smirnoff N. Plant L-ascorbic acid: Chemistry, function, metabolism,

bioavailability and effects of processing. J Sci Food Agric

;80(7):825-60.

Ioannou I, Hafsa I, Hamdi S, Charbonnel C, Ghoul M. Review of

the effects of food processing and formulation on flavonoid and

anthocyanin behavior. J Food Eng 2012;111:208-17.

Mechlouch RF, Thabet AG, Elakesh EO. Changes in the physicochemical

properties

of

palm date

using

different

drying

methods. Univ

Bull

;17(1):59-78.

Hakkinen S, Heinonen M, Karewlampi S, Mykkanen H, Torronen AR.

Influence of domestic processing and storage on flavonols contents in

berries. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48(7):2960-5.

Prakash D, Upadhyay G, Pushpangadna P. Antioxidant potential of

some under-utilized fruits. Indo Glob J Pharm Sci 2011;1(1):25-32.

Salar RK, Dhall A. Antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activity

of extracts of some Indian medicinal plants. J Med Plants Res

;4(22):2313-20.

Yan LY, Teng LT, Jhi TJ. Antioxidant properties of guava fruit:

Comparison with some local fruits. Sunway Acad J 2006;3:9-20.

Yamaguchi T, Taeko M, Rie K, Hiroko K, Fumiko M, Junji T, et al.

Radical-scavenging activity of vegetables and the effect of cooking on

their activity. Food Sci Technol Res 2001;7(3):250-7.

Cuvelier ME, Richard H, Berset C. Comparison of the antioxidant

activity of some acid phenols: Structure-activity relationship. Biosci

Biotechnol Biochem 1992;56:324-5.

Maillard MN, Soum MH, Boivia P, Berset C. Antioxidant activity of

barley and malt: Relationship with phenolic content. Lebensm Wiss

Technol 1996;3:238-44.

Turkmen N, Sari F, Velioglu YS. The effect of cooking methods on total

phenolics and antioxidant activity of selected green vegetables. Food

Chem 2005;93:713-8.

Chism GW, Haard NF. Characteristics of edible plant tissues. In:

Fennema OR, editor. Food Chemistry. New York: Dekker; 1996.

p. 943-1011.

Kalt W, Donald Mc JE, Donner H. Anthocyanins, phenolics, and

antioxidant capacity of processed low bush blueberry products. J Food

Sci 2000;65(3):390-3.

Gupta P, Bhatnagar I, Kim KS, Verma AK, Sharma A. In-vitro cancer

cell cytotoxicity and alpha amylase inhibition effect of seven tropical

fruit residues. Asian Pac Trop Biomed 2014;4(2):S665-71.

Rehman ZU, Shah WH. Tannin contents and protein digestibility

of black gram (Vigna mungo) after soaking and cooking. Plant Food

Human Nutr 2001;56(3):263-73.

Yoshioka H, Tsuyumu S, Takayanagi K. Radical formation during the

processing of green tea. Agric Biol Chem 1990;54:203-4.

Brackmann A, Mazaro SM, Saquet AA. Cold storage of persimmons.

Cultivarors fuyu and ramma forte. Cienc Rural 1997;27:561-5.

Matsuo T, Itoo S. The chemical structure of kaki - Tannin from

immature fruit of the persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.). Agric Biol Chem

;42:1637-43.

Nakamura R. Preliminary studies on the removal of astringency by

freezing in Japnese persimmons. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 2008;30(1):73-6.

Rwubatse B, Issah PA, Emmanuel M. Effect of drying methods on

phytochemical composition of orange fruit (Citrus sinensis, L.) peel

flour in biscuit making. J Environ Sci 2014;8(10):72-5.

Atlabachew M, Chandravanshi BS, Abshiro MR, Torto N, Chigome S,

Pule BO. Evaluation of the effect of various drying techniques on

the composition of the psychoactive phenylpropylamino alkaloids of

Khat (Catha Edulis for SK) chewing leaves. Bull Chem Soc Ethiopa

;27(3):347-58.

Juan JM, Alberto GI, Nuria ER, Patricia RB, Maria GC, Rubein FG.

Drying parameters of half-cut and ground figs (Ficus carica) var.

Mission and the effect on their functional properties. J Eng 2013;8:8.

Mishra DK, Dolan KD, Yang L. Confidence intervals for modeling

anthocyanin retention in grape pomace during non-isothermal heating.

J Food Sci 2008;73:E9-15.

Golmakani MT, Rezaei K. Comparisssson of microwave-assisted

hydrodistillation with the traditional hydrodistillation method in

the extraction of essential oils from Thymus vulgaris L. Food Chem

;109:925-30.

Pala ÇU, Toklucu AK. Effect of UV-C light on anthocyanin content and

other quality parameters of pomegranate juice. J Food Compost Anal

;24:790-5.

Szczesniak AS. Effect on storage on texture. In: Taub IA, Singh RP,

editors. Food Storage Stability. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1998.

Leong SY, Oey I. Effects of processing on anthocyanin, carotenoids and

vitamin C in summer fruits and vegetables. Food Chem 2012;133:1577-87.

Dalal RP, Thakur NA, Singh A. Nutritional value of Karonda (Carissa

carandas Linn). A non- conventional fruit under semi-arid condition of

Punjab. Indian J Agroforestry 2010;12(2):102-4.

Anonymous. In: The Wealth of India: A Dictionary of Indian Raw

Materials and Industrial Products. Vol. 3. New Delhi: CSIR; 1950.

p. 22.

Ozcan M, Arslan D, Unver A. Effect of drying methods on the mineral

content of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). J Food Eng 2004;69:375-9.

Derya A, Ozcan M. Evaluation of drying methods with respects to

drying kinetics, mineral content, and color characteristics of Savory

leaves. Food Bioprocess Technol 2012;5:983-91.




About this article

Title

INFLUENCE OF PROCESSING ON PHYSIOCHEMICAL, NUTRITIONAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CARISSA SPINARUM (KARONDA) FRUIT

Date

01-11-2015

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Vol 8 Issue 6 (November - December) 2015 Page: 254-259

Print ISSN

0974-2441

Online ISSN

2455-3891

Authors & Affiliations

Ambika Chauhan
Lovely Professional University
India

Beenu Tanwar

Intelli Arneja


Article Tools


Email this article (Login required)
Email the author (Login required)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.