Structural diversity in medicinal plants: Identification and quantitative analysis of secondary metabolites using HPTLC and LC-MS for determining its anti-inflammatory activity
One of the complex pathophysiological process i.e. inflammation (acute or chronic), which is mediated by a variety of signaling molecules. Lot of anti-inflammatory drugs (synthetic based origin) that are available but some of them are no longer use due to its side effects. Recently, people relied on various medicinal plant products especially leaves pertaining to secondary metabolites. In the present study, our group focused on various medicinal plants i.e. Prosopis spicigera, Anthocephalus cadamba, Mangifera indica and Madhuca indica in order to identified (qualitatively), isolated (quantitatively) and determined its secondary metabolites that are present in the aqueous leaves extract. The results of these studies showed that these secondary metabolites that are present in aqueous leaves extract showed wide variation in phytochemicals qualitatively and quantitatively using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and also observed some variations in molecules identified through liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) as well. In addition, variable concentration of aqueous leaves extract of Prosopis spicigera, Anthocephalus cadamba, Mangifera indica and Madhuca indica when exposed to lysed human whole blood in presence of Concanavalin (Con)-A Â and the results showed that aqueous leaves extract showed anti-inflammatory activity against Con A at higher doses.
2) Ukwuani A.N., Abubakar M.G., Hassan S.W., Agaie B.M., Antinociceptive Activity of Hydromethanolic Extract of Some Medicinal Plants in Mice. International Journal of Pharmacy. Photon 2013; 104:120-125.
3) McKinney J.D., Richard, A., Waller C., Newman M.C., Gerberick, F, The Practice of Structure Activity relationships (SAR) in Toxicology, Toxicological Science 2000; 56: 8-17
4) Kataria S, Bhardwaj S, Middha A. International Journal of research in Ayurverdic Pharmaceuticals, 2011; 2:1100-1109.
5) Singh P.P., Jha S., Irchhaiya R., Fatima A., Agarwal P. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2012, 3:1001-1004.
6) Nandi M.K., Garabadu D., Singh T.D., Singh V.P., Physicochemical and phytochemical standardization of fruit of Sesbania grandi flora. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2016, 8 (5):297-304.
7) Shaikh A.C., Gupta A., Chaphalkar S.R., HPTLC, LC-MS aided qualitative, quantitative phytochemical screening and immunosuppressive activity of medicinal plants International Journal of Current Trends in Pharmaceutical Research, 2016; 4: 208-215.
8) Seifter J., Glassman J.M., Hudyma G.M., Oxethazaine and related congeners: a series of highly potent local anesthetics, Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 1962; 109:664â€“8.
9) a) "Tamoxifen Citrate". NCI. August 26, 2015. Retrieved 28 November 2015. b) "Tamoxifen Citrate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 27 Nov 2015.
10) Xuan R., Oh H.-S., Lee Y., Kang H.-Y., Total Synthesis of 10-Deoxymethynolide and Narbonolide, Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2008; 73: 1456â€“1461
11) a) Katz R.I., Hovagim A.R., Finkelstein H.S., Grinberg Y., Boccio R.V., Poppers P.J., A comparison of cocaine, lidocaine with epinephrine, and oxymetazoline for prevention of epistaxis on nasotracheal intubation, Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 1990; 2:16â€“20. b) Krempl, G.A., Noorily A.D., Use of oxymetazoline in the management of epistaxis". Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology. 1995; 104: 704â€“6.
12) Drummond G.S., Galbraith R.A., Sardana M. K., Reduction of the C2 and C4 vinyl groups of Sn-protoporphyrin to form Sn-mesoporphyrin markedly enhances the ability of the metalloporphyrin to inhibit in vivo heme catabolism. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 1987; 255:64-74.
14) Hollman A., Drugs for atrial fibrillation. Digoxin comes from Digitalis lanata, British Medical Journal, 1996; 312:912.
15) Jackson P.S., Cooper M.J., Use of cloprostenol for the termination of pregnancy and the expulsion of mummified fetus in cattle. Veterinary Record, 1977; 100:361-3
16) DuPont, H. Therapy for and Prevention of Traveler's Diarrhea". Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2007; 45: S78â€“S84.
17) a) Leung P.C., Taylorg W. A., Wangg J.H., Tipton C.L., Ophiobolin A a natural product inhibitor of calmodulin, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1984; 259:2742-2747.
18) Riva R., De Anna, M., Albani, F., Baruzzi, A., Rapid quantitation of flurazepam and its major metabolite, N-desalkylflurazepam, in human plasma by gas-liquid chromatography with electron-capture detection. Journal of Chromatography B. 1981; 222:491â€“495.
19) Galbraith M.N., Horn D.H.S., Thomson J.A., Neufeld G.J., Hackney R.J., Journal of Insect Physiology, 1969; 15:1225-1233