WAFERS: AN INNOVATIVE ADVANCEMENT OF ORO-DISPERSIBLE FILMS
The formulation of oral disintegrating films has led to the development of wafers which has modified itself in the recent past years. Wafers are more advantageous over other conventional dosage forms as well as from other oral disintegrating solid dosage forms. The major difficulty in formulating wafers is the choice of drugs to be incorporated. Wafers with a low dose of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and with a good mouth feel are prepared for making it more patients compliant. The manufacturing procedures are quite similar to oral disintegrating film, but the composition of polymers may vary. The wafers require expensive packaging and care should be taken while handling, storage & transport. In spite of these hardships, wafers have become popular between geriatric and paediatric population because of its ease of administration and bioavailability.Keywords: Transmucosal route, Oral films, Wafers, Fast dissolving dosage forms, Oral administration.
2. Lindgren S, Janzon L. Dysphagia: prevalence of swallowing complaints and clinical findings. Med Clin North Am 1993;77:3-5.
3. Basani G, Subhas VK, Guru S, Madhusudhan R. Overview on fast dissolving films. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2010;2:29-33.
4. Papola V, Kothiyal P. Wafers technology: a newer approach to smart drug delivery system. Indian J Res Pharm Biotechnol 2013;1:428-9.
5. Lade MS, Paygham SA, Tamboli ZJ. Polymer-based wafer technology. Int J Pharm Biol Arch 2013;4:1060-74.
6. Alpesh RP, Dharmendra S, Jignyasha A. fast dissolving films as a newer venture in fast dissolving dosage forms. Indian J Res Pharm Biotechnol 2000;33:322-9.
7. Galey WR, Lonsdale HK, Nacht S. The in-vitro permeability of skin and buccal mucosa to selected drugs and titrated water. J Invest Dermatol 1976;67:713-7.
8. Arunkanth. Novel drug delivery technologies: a challenging global scenario. Indian J Res Pharm Biotechnol 2013;8:468-82.
9. Verena L, Garsuch K. Preparation and characterization of fast dissolving oral films for paediatric use. Diisseldorf J Heinrich-Heine University 2006;3;2-5.
10. Agarwal J, Singh G, Saini S. Fast dissolving films: a novel approach to oral drug delivery. Int Res J Pharm 2011;2:69-74.
11. Arya A, Chandra A, Sharma V, Pathak K. Fast dissolving films: an innovative drug delivery system and dosage form. Int J Chem Tech 2010;1:576-83.
12. Senel S, Ikinci G, Kas S, Youselfi RA, Sargon M. Chitosan films and hydrogels of chlorhexidine gluconate for oral mucosal delivery. Indian J Res Pharm Biotechnol 2000;193:197-203.
13. Singh S, Jain S, Muthu MS, Tiwari S, Tilak R. Preparation and evaluation of buccal bioadhesive films containing cotrimazole. AAPS PharmSciTech 2008;1:660-7.
14. Shojoei AH. Buccal mucosa as a route for systemic drug delivery. Int J Pharm Sci 1998;1:15-30.
15. Harris D, Robinson JR. Drug delivery via the mucosal membrane of the oral cavity. J Pharm Sci 1992;81:1-10.
16. Wertz PW, Squier CA. Cellular and molecular basis of barrier function in oral epithelium. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 1991;8:237-69.
17. Panda BP, Dey NS, Rao MEB. Development of innovative orally fast disintegrating film dosage forms: a review. Int J Pharm Sci Nanotechnol 2012;5:1666-73.
18. Parmar DU, Patel B, Bhimani A. Orally fast dissolving films as dominant dosage forms for quick release. Int J Pharm Res Bio-Sci 2012;1:27-41.
19. Chowdhury DR, Patel VA, Patel H. Formulation and evaluation of quick dissolving films of levocetrizine dihydrochloride. Int J Pharm Technol 2011;3:740-9.
20. Mishra R, Amin A. Formulation and characterization of rapidly dissolving films of cetrizine hydrochloride using pullan as film forming agent. Indian J Pharm Education Res 2011;45:71-7.
21. Corniello C. Quick dissolving strips: from concept to commercialization. Drug Delivery Technol 2006;6:68-71.
22. Ali S, Quadir A. High molecular weight povidone polymer based films for fast dissolving drug delivery applications. Drug Delivery Technol 2007;7:36-43.
23. Garsuch V, Breikretz J. Comparative investigations on different polymers for the preparation of fast dissolving oral films. J Pharm Pharmacol 2010;62:539-45.
24. Kulkarni AS, Deokule HA, Mane MS, Ghadge DM. Exploration of different polymers for use in the formulation of oral fast dissolving strips. J Curr Pharm Res 2010;2:33-5.
25. Renuka MA, Avani A. Formulation and characterization of rapidly dissolving films of Cetrizine hydrochloride using Pollulan as a film forming agent. Indian J Pharm Education Res 2011;45:70-7.
26. Nagar p, Chauhan I, Yasin M. Insight into polymer: film formers in mouth dissolving film. Drug Invent Today 2011;3:280-9.
27. Kulkarni N, Kumar LD, Sorg A. Fast dissolving orally consumable film containing an anti-tuissive and a mucosa coating agent. J Pharm Sci 2013;2:942.
28. Rowe RC, Forse SF. The effect of plasticizer type and concentration on the incidence of bridging of intagliations on film-coated tablets. J Pharmacol 1981;33:174-5.
29. Browhn GL. Formation of film from polymer dispersions. J Polym Sci 1956;22:423-34.
30. Brown D. Orally disintegrating tablets-taste over speed. Drug Delivery Technol 2003;3:33-8.
31. Cilruzo F, Cupone EI. Diclofenac fast dissolving film: suppression of bitterness by taste sensing system. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2008;1:1-8.
32. Gohel MC, Sharma R. Development of taste masked film of valecoxib for oral use. Indian J Pharm Sci 2010;2:320-3.
33. Nishimura M, Matsuura K, Tsukioka T, Yamashita H, Inagaki N, Sugiyama T, et al. In-vitro characteristics of prochlorperazine oral disintegrating film. Int J Pharm Sci 2009;368:98-102.
34. Moffat C, Osselton M, Widdop B. Clarkâ€™s analysis of drugs and poisons. Int J Pharm Chem 2005;3;66-9.
35. Sohi H, Sultana Y, Khar RK. Taste masking technologies in oral pharmaceuticals: recent developments and approaches. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2004;30:429-48.
36. McGregor R, Homan H, Granina S. Fast dissolving film delivery of nucleotide that inhibit unpleasant taste of bitter tasting medications. Indian J Pharm Sci 2007;69:320-2.
37. Obermeir P, Kohr T, Kramer K. Oral quickly disintegrating film which cannot be split out for an anti-emetic or anti-migraine agent. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2008;70:895-900.
38. Maibach T. Film comprising nitroglycerine. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2005;31:15-39.
39. Khatoon N, Rao R, Reddy M. Overview of fast dissolving oral films. Int J Chem Pharm Sci 2013;1:63-75.
40. Hiroyoshi S, Kazumi TC, Misao N, Katsuhiko M. Preparation of a fast dissolving oral film containing dexamethasone. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2009;5:361-5.
41. Sharma K, Ghosh TK, Pfister WR. Quick dispersing oral drug delivery systems. Drug Pham Sci 2011;145:261-7.
42. Shimoda H, Taniguchi K. Preparation of fast dissolving oral thin films containing Cidexamethasone: a possible application to anti-emetic during cancer chemotherapy. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2009;73:361-5.
43. Mishra R, Amin A. Quick API delivery. Pharm Technol Eur 2010;2:1-5.
44. Mooter GVD. The use of amorphous solid dispersions: a formulation strategy to overcome poor solubility and dissolution rate. Drug Discovery Today 2011;9:975-81.
45. Maniruzzamam M, Boateng J, Bennefille M. Taste masking of paracetamol by holt-melt extrusion: An imino&invitro evaluation. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2012;80:433-42.
46. Verena G, Breitkretz J. Novel analytical methods for the characteristics of oral wafers. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2009;4:1-7.
47. Kolteo K, Maschke A. Melt extrusion for pharmaceuticals. Int J Execrative-Acta 2009;22:2-5.
48. Repka MA, Baltu JK, Upadahay SB, Tunma S. Pharmaceutical application of holt-melt extrusion part. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2007;33:909-26.
49. Bhyan B, Jyangra S, Kaur M, Singh H. Orally fast dissolving films: innovations in formulation and technology. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2011;9:50-7.
50. Kate VK, Payghan SA, Shinde AJ. Effect of ageing condition on the dissolution stability of piroxicam mucoadhesion fast disintegrating tablet. Inventi Rapid NDDS 2013;5:455-8.
51. Bhalla HL. Drug delivery research in India a challenge and opportunity. J Controlled Release 1999;62:65-8.
52. Frey HK. Film strips and pharmaceuticals. Pharm Manufacturing Packaging Source 2006;6:92-3.
53. Malke S, Shidaye S. Oral films patient compliant dosage form for paediatric. Internet J Pediatrics Neonatol 2010;9:544-9.
54. Kate VK, Paygham SA. Effect of bio adhesion and permeability on dissolution behaviour of piroxicam mucoadhesive fast disintegrating tablet. Invention Rapid Pharm Technol 2013;751:2976-3783.
55. Anand VM, Kataria V, Kukkar V. The latest trends in the taste assessment of pharmaceuticals. Drug Discovery Today 2007;12:257-65.
56. Murray OJ, Bergstrom D. Using an electronic tongue to optimize taste masking in lyophilized orally disintegrating tablet formulations. Pharm Technol 2004;44:766-9.
57. Garusch V, Breitkrutz J. Novel analytical method for the characterization of oral wafers. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2011;73:195-201.
58. Cilureo F, Minghetti P, Buratti S, Montanari L. Nicotine fast dissolving films made of maltodextrins: a feasible study. AAPS PharmSciTech 2010;8:99-101.
59. Mahajan A, Chhabra N, Agarwal G. Formulation and characterization of fast dissolving buccal films: a review scholars research library. Pharm Lett 2011;3:152-65.
60. Sward G. Paint testing manualâ€“physical and chemical examination of paint, varnishes, lacquers, colours. Proc Am Soc Test Mater 2000;268:882-9.
61. Felton LP, Donnel O, Ginity MJ. Mechanical properties of polymeric films prepared from aqueous dispersions in: aqueous polymeric coating for pharmaceutical dosage forms. Drug Pharm Sci 2008;176:108.
62. Fulzele LP, Sattuwar PM, Dorle AK. Polymerized rosin: novel film forming polymer for drug delivery. Int J Pharm 2002;249:175-84.
63. Janson KL, Helton MD. Standard test method for tear resistance of plastic film. Proc Am Soc Test Mater 1998;3:76-7.
64. Sinde AJ, Garala KC, More HN. Development and characterization of transdermal system of tramadol hydrochloride. Asian J Pharm 200;4:265-9.
65. Hideaki O, Suzuki Y, Suguira K. Development of easily swallowed film formulation. Int J Pharm 2008;73:195-201.
66. Garsuch V, Brietkreutz J. Novel analytical methodfor the characteristics of oral wafers. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2009;73:195-201.
67. Mundala AS, Avari JG. Evaluation of gum copal as rate controlling membrane for transdermal application: effect of plasticizer. Aceta Pharm Sci 2010;52:31-8.
68. Barhart S, Rathborne N, Hadgraft J, Roberts M. Thin film oral dosage form in modified release drug delivery technology. Drug Pharm Sci 2008;2:209-16.
69. Nishimura MK, Matsura T, Tsukioka. In-vitro, in-vivo characteristics of prochlorperazine oral disintegrating film. Int J Pharm 2009;368:98-102.
70. Vondrak B, Barhart S. Dissolvable films for flexible product format in drug delivery. Pharm Tech Supple 2008;6:68-70.
71. Guo JH. Investigating the surface properties and bioadhesion of buccal patches. J Pharm Pharmacol 1994;46:674-80.
72. Mitali MV, Nilesh MK, Parag SG. Oral fast dissolving drug delivery system. World J Pharm Res 2013;2:2277-3105.
73. Arunarya, Chandra A, Sharma V, Pathak K. Fast dissolving oral film. Int J Chem Technol Res 2010;2:586-3.
74. Liew K, Younne B, Tan T, Peh KK. Characterization of oral disintegrating film for alzheimerâ€™s disease. AAPS PharmSciTech 2012;13:134-42.
75. Rathborne N, Hadgraft J, Roberts M. Oral thin filmsin orally disintegrating tablet & film technology. Technol Catalysts Int Corporation 2006;4:28-31.