IMPACT OF ZOLEDRONATE BISPHOSPHONATE GEL IN VIRGIN COCONUT OIL ON THE INCREASE OF OSTEOCLAST APOPTOSIS
Objective: This study aimed to show the impact of the ZOL in VCO gel (Ge-ZOL) on the extent of osteoclasts apoptosis.
Methods: The study used 27 Sprague-Dawley rats which were divided into three groups: Nine rats in the experimental group were given 40Â Âµg of Ge-ZOL, nine rats in the control group were given VCO emulsion gel without ZOL (Ge-), and nine rats in the normal group were not given any treatment. The gel was applied to the buccal mucosa using a cotton bud for 2Â min at hour of 0, 4, and 8 on days 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4. The rats were sacrificed on days 1, 3, and 5, and then, evaluated by immunohistochemical caspase-3 staining.
Result: The number of apoptotic osteoclast cells in the experimental group was significantly higher than in the control and normal groups (p<0.05). The number of apoptotic osteoclast cells in the experimental group on the day 1 was significantly higher than on the days 3 and 5 (p<0.001).Conclusion: The application of Ge-ZOL to the buccal mucosa proven to improve the number of apoptotic osteoclast cells in the experimental group on the day 1, and this number was higher than on the days 3 and 5.
2. Cobourne M, DiBiase A. Handbook of Orthodontics. Edinburgh: Mosby; 2011. p. 107-23.
3. Proffit W. Contemporary Orthodontics. 4th ed. Canada: Mosby; 2007. p. 331-47.
4. Thiruvenkatachari B, Pavithranand A, Rajasigamani K, Kyung HM. Comparison and measurement of the amount of anchorage loss of the molars with and without the use of implant anchorage during canine retraction. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2006;129:551-4.
5. Reynders R, Ronchi L, Bipat S. Mini-implants in orthodontics: A systematic review of the literature. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2009;135:564.
6. Keles A, Erverdi N, Sezen S. Bodily distalization of molars with absolute anchorage. Angle Orthod 2003;73:471-82.
7. Lee J, Miyazawa K, Tabuchi M, Kawaguchi M, Shibata M, Goto S. Midpalatal miniscrews and high-pull headgear for anteroposterior and vertical anchorage control: Cephalometric comparisons of treatment changes. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2013;144:238-50.
8. Thiruvenkatachari B, Ammayappan P, Kandaswamy R. Comparison of rate of canine retraction with conventional molar anchorage and titanium implant anchorage. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2008;134:30-5.
9. Jamwal RS, Doshi UH, Bhad WA. Comparison of sagittal anchorage conservation of mini-implants and modified Nance palatal buttons. Orthodontics (Chic.)2012;13:e10-9.
10. Kuroda S, Sugawara Y, Deguchi T, Kyung HM, Takano-Yamamoto T. Clinical use of miniscrew implants as orthodontic anchorage: Success rates and postoperative discomfort. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2007;131:9-15.
11. Drake MT, Clarke BL, Khosla S. Bisphosphonates: Mechanism of action and role in clinical practice. Mayo Clin Proc 2008;83:1032-45.
12. Ghoneima A, Allam E, Zunt S, Windsor L. Bisphosphonates treatment and orthodontic considerations. Orthod Craniofac Res 2010;13:1-10.
13. Rogers MJ. New insights into the molecular mechanisms of action of bisphosphonates. Curr Pharm Des 2003;9:2643-58.
14. Roelofs AJ, Thompson K, Gordon S, Rogers MJ. Molecular mechanisms of action of bisphosphonates: Current status. Clin Cancer Res 2006;12:6222s-30s.
15. Gong L, Altman RB, Klein TE. Bisphosphonates pathway. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2011;21:50-3.
16. Gilman A. Goodman and Gilmanâ€™s the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 10th ed. North America: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc; 2001. p. 1733-4.
17. Russell RG. Bisphosphonates: Mode of action and pharmacology. Pediatrics 2007;119 Suppl 2:S150-62.
18. Iglesias-Linares A, YÃ¡Ã±ez-Vico RM, Solano-Reina E, Torres-Lagares D, GonzÃ¡lez Moles MA. Influence of bisphosphonates in orthodontic therapy: Systematic review. J Dent 2010;38:603-11.
19. Ortega AJ, Campbell PM, Hinton R, Naidu A, Buschang PH. Local application of zoledronate for maximum anchorage during space closure. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2012;142:780-91.
20. Gill R, Balaji O, Kumari M, Mohan Babu VA, Udupa KS. Zoledronic acid: A mischievous suspect for liver injury. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:3-6.
21. Fujimura Y, Kitaura H, Yoshimatsu M, Eguchi T, Kohara H, Morita Y, et al. Influence of bisphosphonates on orthodontic tooth movement in mice. Eur J Orthod 2009;31:572-7.
22. Cookson BT, Brennan MA. Pro-inflammatory programmed cell death. Trends Microbiol 2001;9:113-4.
23. Benford HL, McGowan NW, Helfrich MH, Nuttall ME, Rogers MJ. Visualization of bisphosphonate-induced caspase-3 activity in apoptotic osteoclasts in vitro. Bone 2001;28:465-73.
24. Liu L, Igarashi K, Haruyama N, Saeki S, Shinoda H, Mitani H. Effects of local administration of clodronate on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in rats. Eur J Orthod 2004;26:469-73.
25. Panwar AS, Upadhyay N, Bairagi M, Gujar S, Darwhekar GN, Jain DK. Emulgelâ€¯: A review. Asian J Pharm Life Sci 2011;1:333-43.
26. Ajazuddin, Alexander A, Khichariya A, Gupta S, Patel RJ, Giri TK, et al. Recent expansions in an emergent novel drug delivery technology: Emulgel. J Control Release 2013;171:122-32.
27. Fatimah F, Rindengan B. Influence of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) Emulsion Diet to White Mouse Lipid Profile. A Research Plant Ind 2011;17:18-24.
28. Bangun H, Jumiati J, Arianto A. The effect of sodium chloride 0,9 % infusion solution and ringerâ€™s solution on particle size of intravenous lipid emulsion (intralipid 20 %). Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:281-5.
29. Arifin R, Widayati R, Purwaningsih E, Suniarti D. Penetration effect of prostaglandin E2 gel on oral mucosa of rats. Dent J 2012;45:161-6.