SALIVARY ALPHA-AMYLASE AS A MEASURE OF ANXIETY BEFORE AND AFTER DENTAL TREATMENT FOR VISUALLY AND HEARING-IMPAIRED CHILDREN AND THEIR MOTHERS
Objective: Visual and hearing impairments are known to profoundly affect children's psychological development, including their anxiety. However, strong emotional relationship with their mother found in these children may help them cope. Measuring salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) in saliva samples is widely used in clinical settings as a reliable, non-invasive biomarker of anxiety level.
Methods: Our objective was to evaluate sAA levels in visually and hearing-impaired children and their mothers before and after dental treatment. This study included 60 children with visual and hearing impairments and their mothers. sAA level of both children and mothers was sampled while they were together in the waiting room before treatment. The children then underwent dental prophylaxis in a separate room, and their post-treatment sAA was measured immediately afterward. At that time, their mother's post-treatment sAA was sampled in the waiting room. Data were analyzed using a Wilcoxon test.
Results: sAA levels were found to differ significantly between pre-Â and post-dental treatment (p<0.05).
Conclusion: This difference indicates that reducing maternal anxiety would be of great benefit in reducing anxiety in visually and hearing-impaired children. Practical implications: Appropriately managing anxiety in this group of children can be of great benefit to dentists in daily practice, helping them provide the care that these children need.
2. Sunanto J. Anak dengan Gangguan Penglihatan. â€Š???: Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia; 2014.
3. Hindley P, Salt A. The hearing or visually impaired child models of deafness. In: Martin A, Volkmar FR, editors. Lewiâ€™s Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: A Comprehensive Textbook. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007. p. 67-76.
4. Maciel MA, Cordeiro PM, Dâ€™Avila S, Godoy GP, Alves RD, Lins RD. Assessing the oral condition of visually impaired individuals attending the ParaÃba Institute of the Blind. Rev Odonto Cienc 2009;24:354-60.
5. Noorani H, Joshi HV, Shivaprakash P. Salivary alpha amylase as a noninvasive biomarker for dental fear and its correlation with behavior of children during dental treatment. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7:19-23.
7. Kang Y. Psychological stress-induced changes in salivary alpha-amylase and adrenergic activity. Nurs Health Sci 2010;12:477-84.
8. Wright GZ, Kupietzky A. Behaviour Management in Dentistry for Children. 2nd ed. Iowa: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014. p. 248.
9. Nater UM, Rohleder N. Salivary alpha-amylase as a non-invasive biomarker for the sympathetic nervous system: Current state of research. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2009;34:486-96.
10. Bowlby J. Attachment and Loss. New York: Basic; 1982.
11. Sroufe LA. Early relationships and the development of children. Infant Ment Health J 2000;21:67-74.