Sindhu Abraham, Rajamanickam Deveswaran, Jayaraman Anbu, Sharon Furtado, Bharath Srinivasan


Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate differences in pharmacokinetic patterns of immediate release tablet (IR) and compression coated tablet (CCT) of lornoxicam, proposed for the chronotherapeutic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

Methods: The dosage forms were administered to two groups of white new zealand rabbits (n=3) and the plasma drug levels were measured by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Pharmacokinetic parameters like maximum concentration (Cmax), time taken to reach maximum concentration (Tmax), area under the curve (AUC), elimination half-life (t1/2) and Mean Residence Time (MRT) were determined.

Results: In the case of IR tablets, the drug was detected within 15 min after oral administration and a Cmax of 1269.57±4.04 ng/ml was attained at 2±0.15 h. With CCT, drug was detected only after 5 h and a Cmax of 1279.24±12.76 ng/ml was attained at 8±0.10 h. The CCT showed maximum drug release at the eighth hour in comparison to IR tablet which showed maximum release at the second hour of study.

 Conclusion: The predominant lag time prior to drug release from CCT is an indication that it is consistent with the requirements of chronopharmaceutical drug delivery. The results suggest that the compression coated tablet is a promising approach for chronotherapeutic management of rheumatoid arthritis.


lornoxicam, chronotherapeutic, LC-MS/MS, pharmacokinetic studies, new zealand rabbits


Bairy, Laxminarayana K. Chronotherapeutics: a hype or future of chronopharmacology. Indian J Pharmacol 2013; 45: 545–6.

Neeharika MS, Jeevana Jyothi B. Chronotherapeutics: an optimizing approach to synchronize drug delivery with circadian rhythm. J Crit Rev 2015; 2: 31-40.

Vitasta Singh, Ashwini Deshpande. The emergence of time programmed drug delivery system: chronotherapy of cardiovascular diseases. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014; 6:56-60.

Rajyalakshmi K, Indira Muzib Y, Saisree CH. Chronotherapeutic delivery of diclofenac sodium using almond gum as a carrier for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014; 7:144-9.

Songa Ambedkar Sunil, Meka Venkata Srikanth, Nali Sreenivasa Rao, Kolapalli Venkata Ramana Murthy. Chronotherapeutic drug delivery from indomethacin compression coated tablets for early morning pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Drug Deliv 2013; 10:109-21.

Hetal Patel, Sonia Pandey, Vihari Patel, Ritesh Shah, Sanjay Tiwari. Pulsatile release of ketoprofen from compression coated tablets using eudragit polymers. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015; 8: 224-9.

Songa Ambedkar Sunil, Nali Sreenivasa Rao, Meka Venkata Srikanth, Michael Uwumagbe Uhumwangho, Kommana Srinivas Phani Kumar, Kolaplli Venkata Ramana Murthy. Development and evaluation of a chronotherapeutic drug delivery system of torsemide. Braz J Pharm Sci 2011; 47: 593-600.

Amit Bhat, Chowdary KPR, Shobharani RH, Lakshmi Narasu. Pharmacokinetic studies of chronopharmaceutical, conventional and pure drug delivery system of theophylline by LC-MS/MS method. J Pharm Sci Res 2011; 3:1070-6.

Sateesh Kumar Vemula, Radhika Katkum. Colon-specific double-compression coated colon-specific double-compression coated pulsatile tablets of ketorolac tromethamine: formulation development and pharmacokinetics. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 2015; 29: 78-83.

Sateesh Kumar Vemula. Formulation and pharmacokinetics of colon-specific double-compression coated mini-tablets: chronopharmaceutical delivery of ketorolac tromethamine. Int J Pharm 2015; 491:35-41.

Jing Liu, Liangke Zhang, Wenjing Hu, Rui Tian, Yongzhen Teng, Chengyuan Wang. Preparation of konjac glucomannan-based pulsatile capsule for colonic drug delivery system and its evaluation in vitro and in vivo. Carbohydr Polym 2012; 87:377–82.

Krishnaiah YSR, et al. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of guar gum-based colon-targeted drug delivery systems of mebendazole in healthy volunteers. J Control Release 2003; 88:95–103.

Sateesh Kumar Vemula, Vijaya Kumar Bontha. Colon targeted guar gum compression coated tablets of flurbiprofen: formulation, development and pharmacokinetics. Bio Med Res Int 2013; 287919: 1-8.

Paget JE, Barnes JM. Toxicity tests. In: Laurence DR, Bacharach AL editors. Evaluation of drug activities: Pharmacometrics. 1st ed. Cambridge, USA: Academic Press; 1964.p.135-66.

Mahrous O Ahmed, Abdullah A Al-Badr. Lornoxicam. In: Harry Brittain, editor. Profiles of drug substances, excipients, and related methodology. 1st ed. Oxford: Elsevier Inc; 2011.p.205-37

Nalini Kanta Sahoo,Madhusmita Sahu , Podilapu Srinivasa Rao, Goutam Ghosh. Extraction and quantification of lornoxicam in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in positive ion mode. Asian J Chem 2014; 26: 2452-8.

Fatal error: Call to a member function getGalleyLabel() on null in /home/innowar1/public_html/journals/cache/t_compile/%%38^38D^38D7420B%%article.tpl.php on line 182