SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES: A PROMISING APPROACH FOR COMBINATIONAL DRUG THERAPY IN CANCER
Combination therapy for cancer treatment is accepted worldwide due to the generation of synergistic anticancer effects; restrain in multidrug resistance (MDR) or tumor resistance by different mechanisms of action and minimization of dose-dependent toxicity. Recently developed Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are matrix composed of lipid which is solid at both room and body temperature and hence it is as an alternative to other nanocarrier systems. SLNs after oral administration get absorbed by lymphatic pathway due to stimulation of chylomicron formation. Thus, it avoids all consequences related to an oral drug delivery system and improves oral bioavailability. SLNs based combination drug delivery to tumor tissues reduces the problems associated with chemotherapy. The targeted and sustained delivery of chemotherapeutic agents reduces the dose by achieving high concentrations at the target site, without altering the normal tissues. In this article, we have reviewed and focused on SLNs as a drug delivery system; ingredients used in formulating SLNs and developed two or more drugs in a single formulation of SLNs as drug delivery. This article also focuses on the fact that SLNs as a combination drug delivery provides an attractive approach in future prevention and beneficial for the treatment of cancer by increasing its therapeutic efficacy.
2. Mohanty C, Das M, Kanwar MR, Sahoo SK. Receptor-mediated tumor targeting: an emerging approach for cancer therapy. Curr Drug Delivery 2011;8:45â€“58.
3. Abbasi AZ, Prasad P, Cai P, He C, Foltz WD, Amini MA, et al. Manganese oxide and docetaxel co-loaded fluorescent polymer nanoparticles for dual modal imaging and chemotherapy of breast cancer. J Controlled Release 2015;209:186-96.
4. Persidis A. Cancer multi drug resistance. Nat Biotechnol 1999;17:94-5.
5. Parhi P, Mohanty C, Sahoo SK. Nanotechnology-based combinational drug delivery: an emerging approach for cancer therapy. Drug Discovery Today 2012;17:1044-52.
6. Dilnawaz F, SK Sahoo. Research paper Enhanced accumulation of curcumin and temozolomide loaded magnetic nanoparticles executes profound cytotoxic effect in glioblastoma spheroid model. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2013;85:452â€“62.
7. Yassin AE, Albekairy A, Alkatheri A, Sharma RK. Anticancer-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: high potential advancement in chemotherapy. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 2013;8:905â€“16.
8. Kadian R. Nanoparticles: a promising drug delivery approach. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:30-5.
9. Ponchel G, Montisci MJ, Dembri A, Durrer C, DuchÃªne D. Mucoadhesion of colloidal particulate systems in the gastrointestinal tract. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 1997;44:25-31.
10. Wong HL, Bendayan R, Rauth AM, Li Y, Wu XY. Chemotherapy with anticancer drugs encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 2007;59:491-504.
11. Sarath Chandran IA. Review on nanotechnology in solid lipid nanoparticles. IJPDT 2012;2:45-61.
12. Senthil Kumar P, Arivuchelvan A, Jagadeeswaran A, Subramanian N, Senthil Kumar C, Mekala P. Formulation, optimization and evaluation of enrofloxacin solid lipid nanoparticles for sustained oral delivery. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8:231-6.
13. Kaliamurthi S, Selvaraj G. Insight on solid lipid nanoparticles: characterization and application in diabetes mellitus. J Crit Rev 2016;3:11-6.
14. Pinto JF, MÃ¼ller RH. Pellets as carriers of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for oral administration of drugs. Pharmazie 1999;54:506-9.
15. Mehnert W, MÃ¤der K. Solid lipid nanoparticles: production, characterization and applications. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 2001;47:165-96.
16. Cavalli R, Caputo O, Gasco MR. Solid lipospheres of doxorubicin and idarubicin. Int J Pharm 1993;89:R9-R12.
17. Esposito E, Fantin M, Marti M, Drechsler M, Paccamiccio L, Mariani P, et al. Solid lipid nanoparticles as delivery systems for bromocriptine. Pharm Res 2008;25:1521-30.
18. Patravale VB, Ambarkhane AV. Study of solid lipid nanoparticles with respect to particle size distribution and drug loading. Die Pharmazie-An Int J Pharm Sci 2003;58:392-5.
19. Xu W, Lim SJ, Lee MK. Cellular uptake and antitumour activity of paclitaxel incorporated into trilaurin-based solid lipid nanoparticles in ovarian cancer. J Microencapsul 2013;30:755-61.
20. Narala A, Veerabrahma K. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of quetiapine fumarate solid lipid nanoparticles to improve the oral bioavailability. J Pharm 2013:1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/265741
21. Naguib YW, Rodriguez BL, Li X, Hursting SD, Williams III RO, Cui Z. Solid lipid nanoparticle formulations of docetaxel prepared with high melting point triglycerides: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Mol Pharm 2014;11:1239-49.
22. Tichota DM, Silva AC, Lobo JM, Amaral MH. Design, characterization, and clinical evaluation of argan oil nanostructured lipid carriers to improve skin hydration. Int J Nanomed 2014;9:3855-64.
23. Ahlin P, Kristl J, Smid-Korbar J. Optimization of procedure parameters and physical stability of solid lipid nanoparticles in dispersions. Acta Pharma 1998;48:259-67.
24. Westesen K, Bunjes H, Koch MH. Physicochemical characterization of lipid nanoparticles and evaluation of their drug loading capacity and sustained release potential. J Controlled Release 1997;48:223-36.
25. Cavalli R, Gasco MR, Morel S. Behaviour of timolol incorporated in lipospheres in the presence of a series of phosphate esters. STP Pharma Sci 1992;2:514-8.
26. Patel MN, Lakkadwala S, Majrad MS, Injeti ER, Gollmer SM, Shah ZA, et al. Characterization and evaluation of 5-fluorouracil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared via a temperature-modulated solidification technique. AAPS PharmSciTech 2014;15:1498-508.
27. Yuan H, Miao J, Du YZ, You J, Hu FQ, Zeng S. Cellular uptake of solid lipid nanoparticles and cytotoxicity of encapsulated paclitaxel in A549 cancer cells. Int J Pharm 2008;348:137-45.
28. Shi F, Zhao JH, Liu Y, Wang Z, Zhang YT, Feng NP. Preparation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with frankincense and myrrh oil. Int J Nanomed 2012;7:2033-43.
29. Carbone C, Campisi A, Musumeci T, Raciti G, Bonfanti R, Puglisi G. FA-loaded lipid drug delivery systems: preparation, characterization and biological studies. Eur J Pharm Sci 2014;52:12-20.
30. Xie S, Zhu L, Dong Z, Wang Y, Wang X, Zhou W. Preparation and evaluation of ofloxacin-loaded palmitic acid solid lipid nanoparticles. Int J Nanomed 2011;6:547-55.
31. Li Y, Taulier N, Rauth AM, Wu XY. Screening of lipid carriers and characterization of drug-polymer-lipid interactions for the rational design of polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (PLN). Pharm Res 2006;23:1877-87.
32. Tran TH, Choi JY, Ramasamy T, Truong DH, Nguyen CN, Choi HG, et al. Hyaluronic acid-coated solid lipid nanoparticles for targeted delivery of vorinostat to CD44 overexpressing cancer cells. Carbohydr Polym 2014;114:407-15.
33. Zhang Z, Gao F, Bu H, Xiao J, Li Y. Solid lipid nanoparticles loading candesartan cilexetil enhance oral bioavailability: in vitro characteristics and absorption mechanism in rats. Nanomed: Nanotechnol Biol Med 2012;8:740-7.
34. Serpe L, Catalano MG, Cavalli R, Ugazio E, Bosco O, Canaparo R, et al. Cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs incorporated in solid lipid nanoparticles on HT-29 colorectal cancer cell line. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2004;58:673-80.
35. Chen H, Chang X, Du D, Liu W, Liu J, Weng T, et al. Podophyllotoxin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for epidermal targeting. J Controlled Release 2006;110:296-306.
36. Almeida AJ, Runge S, MÃ¼ller RH. Peptide-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN): influence of production parameters. Int J Pharm 1997;149:255-65.
37. Muller RH, Olbrich C. Solid lipid nanoparticles phagocytic uptake, in vitro cytotoxicity and in vitro biodegradation. 1st communication Pharm Ind 1999;61:462â€“7.
38. Das S, Ng WK, Tan RB. Are nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) better than solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs): development, characterizations and comparative evaluations of clotrimazole-loaded SLNs and NLCs? Eur J Pharm Sci 2012;47:139-51.
39. Ibrahim WM, AlOmrani AH, Yassin AE. Novel sulpiride-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles with enhanced intestinal permeability. Int J Nanomed 2014;9:129-44.
40. Bunjes H, Koch MH, Westesen K. Influence of emulsifiers on the crystallization of solid lipid nanoparticles. J Pharm Sci 2003;92:1509-20.
41. Westesen K, Siekmann B. Investigation of the gel formation of phospholipid-stabilized solid lipid nanoparticles. Int J Pharm 1997;151:35-45.
42. Patlolla RR, Chougule M, Patel AR, Jackson T, Tata PN, Singh M. Formulation, characterization and pulmonary deposition of nebulized celecoxib encapsulated nanostructured lipid carriers. J Controlled Release 2010;144:233-41.
43. Trotta M, Debernardi F, Caputo O. Preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles by a solvent emulsificationâ€“diffusion technique. Int J Pharm 2003;257:153-60.
44. Mojahedian MM, Daneshamouz S, Samani SM, Zargaran A. A novel method to produce solid lipid nanoparticles using n-butanol as an additional co-surfactant according to the o/w microemulsion quenching technique. Chem Phys Lipids 2013;174:32-8.
45. Serpe L, Laurora S, Pizzimenti S, Ugazio E, Ponti R, Canaparo R, et al. Cholesteryl butyrate solid lipid nanoparticles as a butyric acid pro-drug: effects on cell proliferation, cell-cycle distribution and c-myc expression in human leukemic cells. Anti-Cancer Drugs 2004;15:525-36.
46. Morel S, Terreno E, Ugazio E, Aime S, Gasco MR. NMR relaxometric investigations of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing gadolinium (III) complexes. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 1998;45:157-63.
47. Rcavalli RC, Marengo E, Rodriguez L, Gasco MR. Effect of some experimental factors on the production process of solid lipid nanoparticles. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 1996;42:110-5.
48. Sarangi MK, Padhi S. Solid lipid nanoparticlesâ€“a review. J Crit Rev 2016;3:5-12.
49. Shah KA, Date AA, Joshi MD, Patravale VB. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of tretinoin: potential in topical delivery. Int J Pharm 2007;345:163-71.
50. Subedi RK, Kang KW, Choi HK. Preparation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin. Eur J Pharm Sci 2009;37:508-13.
51. Muller RH. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN)-an alternative colloidal carrier system for controlled drug delivery. Eur J Biopharm 1995;41:62-9.
52. Liu J, Gong T, Wang C, Zhong Z, Zhang Z. Solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with insulin by sodium cholate-phosphatidylcholine-based mixed micelles: preparation and characterization. Int J Pharm 2007;340:153-62.
53. Hippalgaonkar K, Adelli GR, Hippalgaonkar K, Repka MA, Majumdar S. Indomethacin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for ocular delivery: development, characterization, and in vitro evaluation. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2013;29:216-28.
54. Ali H, Shirode AB, Sylvester PW, Nazzal S. Preparation, characterization, and anticancer effects of simvastatinâ€“tocotrienol lipid nanoparticles. Int J Pharm 2010;389:223-31.
55. Anitha A, Sreeranganathan M, Chennazhi KP, Lakshmanan VK, Jayakumar R. In vitro combinatorial anticancer effects of 5-fluorouracil and curcumin loaded N, O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles toward colon cancer and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2014;88:238-51.
56. Zhang J, Han J, Zhang X, Jiang J, Xu M, Zhang D, et al. Polymeric nanoparticles based on chitooligosaccharide as drug carriers for co-delivery of all-trans-retinoic acid and paclitaxel. Carbohydr Polym 2015;129:25-34.
57. Dilnawaz F, Sahoo SK. Enhanced accumulation of curcumin and temozolomide loaded magnetic nanoparticles executes profound cytotoxic effect in glioblastoma spheroid model. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2013;85:452-62.
58. Baek JS, Cho CW. Controlled release and reversal of multidrug resistance by co-encapsulation of paclitaxel and verapamil in solid lipid nanoparticles. Int J Pharm 2015;478:617-24.
59. Zhu R, Wu X, Xiao Y, Gao B, Xie Q, Liu H, et al. Synergetic effect of SLN-curcumin and LDH-5-Fu on SMMC-7721 liver cancer cell line. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2013;28:579-87.
60. Wong HL, Bendayan R, Rauth AM, Wu XY. Simultaneous delivery of doxorubicin and GG918 (Elacridar) by new polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (PLN) for enhanced treatment of multidrug-resistant breast cancer. J Controlled Release 2006;116:275-84.
61. Thakkar A, Chenreddy S, Wang J, Prabhu S. Ferulic acid combined with aspirin demonstrates chemopreventive potential towards pancreatic cancer when delivered using chitosan-coated solid-lipid nanoparticles. Cell Biosci 2015;5:46.
62. Sutaria D, Grandhi BK, Thakkar A, Wang J, Prabhu S. Chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer using solid-lipid nanoparticulate delivery of a novel aspirin, curcumin and sulforaphane drug combination regimen. Int J Oncol 2012;41:2260-8.
63. Buyukkoroglu G, Åženel B, BaÅŸaran E, Yenilmez E, Yazan Y. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of vaginal formulations including siRNA and paclitaxel-loaded SLNs for cervical cancer. Eur J Pharm Bipharm 2016;109:174-83.
64. Li S, Wang L, Li N, Liu Y, Su H. Combination lung cancer chemotherapy: Design of a pH-sensitive transferrin-PEG-Hz-lipid conjugate for the co-delivery of docetaxel and baicalin. Biomed Pharmacother 2017;95:548-55.
65. Oliveira MS, Aryasomayajula B, Pattni B, Mussi SV, Ferreira LA, Torchilin VP. Solid lipid nanoparticles co-loaded with doxorubicin and Î±-tocopherol succinate are effective against drug-resistant cancer cells in monolayer and 3-D spheroid cancer cell models. Int J Pharm 2016;512:292-300.
66. Buyukkoroglu G, Åženel B, Gezgin S, Dinh T. The simultaneous delivery of paclitaxel and Herceptin using solid lipid nanoparticles: in vitro evaluation. J Drug Delivery Sci Tech 2016;35:98-105.
67. Liu B, Han L, Liu J, Han S, Chen Z, Jiang L. Co-delivery of paclitaxel and TOS-cisplatin via TAT-targeted solid lipid nanoparticles with synergistic antitumor activity against cervical cancer. Int J Nanomed 2017;12:955-68.
68. Thakkar A, Chenreddy S, Wang J, Prabhu S. Evaluation of ibuprofen loaded solid lipid nanoparticles and its combination regimens for pancreatic cancer chemoprevention. Int J Oncol 2015;46:1827-34.
69. Wang Y, Zhang H, Hao J, Li B, Li M, Xiuwen W. Lung cancer combination therapy: co-delivery of paclitaxel and doxorubicin by nanostructured lipid carriers for synergistic effect. Drug Delivery 2016;23:1398-403.