DEVELOPMENT OF SEMISOLID PREPARATIONS CONTAINING EXTRACT OF THAI POLYHERBAL RECIPE FOR ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT
Objective: The objective was to develop the semisolid preparations containing extract of Thai polyherbal recipe with anti-inflammatory effect.
Methods: Polyherbal ethanolic extract was prepared by maceration and determined for phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. Effects of extract on the production of pro-inflammatory mediator-nitric oxide (NO)-were examined in RAW 264.7 cells. Semisolid preparations, balm, and gel, were prepared and evaluated. In vitro release profiles and mechanisms of phenolic compounds, phytochemical markers, from the preparations were investigated.
Results: Polyherbal ethanolic extract was dark yellow-green, viscous liquid with the yields of 8.2%. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were 121.21±1.60 mg GAE/g and 26.55±1.38 mg QE/g, respectively. Antioxidant assay showed that polyherbal extract can scavenge the radical to a certain extent, with DPPH IC50 of 160.75±3.43 µg/ml and FRAP values of 91.94±4.17 mg FeSO4/g. In vitro anti-inflammatory test revealed that the extract inhibited NO production in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 of 145.65±3.26 µg/ml. The yellowish-green color, homogenous and suitable for skin application polyherbal balm and gel was obtained. The higher release of phenolics from the gel was observed, with the cumulative release at 8 h of 119.0±4.3 mg GAE, whereas that from the balm was only 39.7±2.0 mg GAE. The phenolic release profile was found to be best fitted with the Higuchi model.
Conclusion: The semisolid preparations containing Thai polyherbal recipe extract with anti-inflammatory effect were successfully prepared. The proper semisolid base and compositions are crucial for effective skin delivery as they influence the release rates of phytochemical markers.
2. Chanthasri W, Puangkeaw N, Kunworarath N, Jaisamut P, Limsuwan S, Maneenoon K, et al. Antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of 20 polyherbal remedies used as tonics by folk healers in Phatthalung and Songkhla provinces, Thailand. BMC Complementary Altern Med 2018;18:73.
3. Aiyalu R, Govindarjan A, Ramasamy A. Formulation and evaluation of topical herbal gel for the treatment of arthritis in an animal model. Braz J Pharm Sci 2016;52:493-507.
4. Allen LV, Zanowiak P. Pharmaceutical dosage forms. In: Elvers B. editor. Ullman’s encyclopedia of industrial chemistry Hamburg (Germany): Wiley-VCH; 2014. p. 1–45.
5. Chang RK, Raw A, Lionberger R, Yu L. Generic development of topical dermatologic products: formulation development, process development, and testing of topical dermatologic products. AAPS J 2013;15:41-52.
6. Banlangsawan N, Sripanidkulchai B, Sanoamuang N. Investigation of antioxidative, antityrosinase and cytotoxic effects of an extract of irradiated oyster mushroom. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 2016;38:31–9.
7. Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela Raventos RM. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin–ciocalteau reagent. Methods Enzymol 1999;299:152–78.
8. Woisky R, Salatino A. Analysis of propolis: some parameters and procedures for chemical quality control. J Apic Res 1998;37:99–105.
9. Brand Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Sci Technol 1995;28:25–30.
10. Benzie IFF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 1996;239:70-6.
11. Adebiyi OE, Olayemi FO, Ning-Hua T, Guang-Zhi Z. In vitro antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of ethanol extract of stem and leaf of Grewia carpinifolia. Beni Suef University J Basic Appl Sci 2017;6:10-4.
12. Phosri S, Mahakunakorn P, Lueangsakulthai J, Jangpromma N, Swatsitang P, Daduang S, et al. An investigation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities from blood components of crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis). Protein J 2014;33:484-92.
13. Ruiz Martinez MA, Lopez Viota Gallardo J, de Benavides MM, de Dios García Lopez Duran J, Gallardo Lara V. Rheological behavior of gels and meloxicam release. Int J Pharm 2007;333:17-23.
14. Partha N, Snigdha P, Laxmidhar M. Formulation development and in vitro evaluation of dental gel containing ethanol extract of Tephrosia purpurea linn. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:132-41.
15. Olejnik A, Goscianska J, Nowak I. Active compounds release from semisolid dosage forms. J Pharm Sci 2012;101:4032-45.
16. Prior RL, Wu X, Schaich K. Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:4290-302.
17. Rajurkar NS, Hande SM. Estimation of phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of some selected traditional Indian medicinal plants. Indian J Pharm Sci 2011;73:146-51.
18. Djeridane A, Yousfi M, Nadjemi B, Boutassouna D, Stocker P, Vidal N. Antioxidant activity of some Algerian medicinal plants extracts containing phenolic compounds. Food Chem 2006;97:654-60.
19. Anand David AV, Arulmoli R, Parasuraman S. Overviews of the biological importance of quercetin: a bioactive flavonoid. Pharmacogn Rev 2016;10:84-9.
20. Garcia Mediavilla V, Crespo I, Collado PS, Esteller A, Sanchez Campos S, Tunon MJ, et al. The anti-inflammatory flavones quercetin and kaempferol cause inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and reactive C-protein, and down-regulation of the nuclear factor kappaB pathway in chang liver cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2007;557:221-9.
21. Meghwal M, Goswami TK. Piper nigrum and piperine: an update. Phytother Res 2013;27:1121-30.
22. Tasleem F, Azhar I, Ali SN, Perveen S, Mahmood ZA. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Piper nigrum L. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2014;7S1:S461-8.
23. Hamrapurkar PD, Jadhav K, Zine S. Quantitative estimation of piperine in Piper nigrum and Piper longum using high-performance thin layer chromatography. J Appl Pharm Sci 2011;1:117-20.
24. Dugasani S, Pichika MR, Nadarajah VD, Balijepalli MK, Tandra S, Korlakunta JN. Comparative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of -gingerol, -gingerol, -gingerol and -shogaol. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;127:515-20.
25. Ozaki Y, Kawahara N, Harada M. Anti-inflammatory effect of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. and its active principles. Chem Pharm Bull 1991;39:2353-6.
26. Jeenapongsa R, Yoovathaworn K, Sriwatanakul KM, Pongprayoon U, Sriwatanakul K. Anti-inflammatory activity of (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) butadiene from Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;87:143-8.
27. Panthong A, Kanjanapothi D, Niwatananun V, Tuntiwachwuttikul P, Reutrakul V. Anti-inflammatory activity of compounds isolated from Zingiber cassumunar. Planta Med 1990;56:655.
28. Koontongkaew S, Poachanukoon O, Sireeratawong S, Dechatiwongse Na Ayudhya T, Khonsung P, Jaijoy K, et al. Safety evaluation of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. rhizome extract: acute and chronic toxicity studies in rats. Int Scholarly Res Not 2014;632608:1-14.
29. Chien TY, Chen LG, Lee CJ, Lee FY, Wang CC. Anti-inflammatory constituents of Zingiber zerumbet. Food Chem 2008;110:584-9.
30. Chudiwal AK, Jain DP, Somani R. Alpinia galanga willd-an overview on phytopharmacological properties. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 2010;1:143-9.
31. Ghosh S, Rangan L. Alpinia: the gold mine of future therapeutics. 3 Biotech 2013;3:173-85.
32. Angel GR, Vimala B, Nambisan B. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of proteins isolated from eight curcuma species. Phytopharmacology 2013;4:96-105.
33. Rajkumari S, Sanatombi K. Nutritional value, phytochemical composition, and biological activities of edible Curcuma species: a review. Int J Food Prop 2017;20:S2668-87.
34. Rajput SB, Tonge MB, Karuppayil SM. An overview on traditional uses and pharmacological profile of Acorus calamus Linn. (Sweet flag) and other Acorus species. Phytomedicine 2014;21:268-76.
35. John JC, Fernandes J, Nandgude T, Niphade SR, Savla A, Deshmukh PT. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the hydroalcoholic extract from Gloriosa superba Linn. Int J Green Pharm 2009;3:215-9.
36. Gangopadhyay M, Sircar D, Mitra A, Bhattacharya S. Hairy root culture of Plumbago indica as a potential source for plumbagin. Biol Plant 2008;52:533-7.
37. Luo P, Wong YF, Ge L, Zhang ZF, Liu Y, Liu L, et al. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of plumbagin through inhibition of nuclear factor-?B activation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2010;335:735-42.
38. Kumar S, Kamboj J, Suman, Sharma S. Overview for various aspects of the health benefits of Piper Longum linn. fruit. J Acupuncture Meridian Studies 2011;4:134-40.
39. Kidarn S, Saenjum C, Hongwiset D, Phrutivorapongkul A. Furanocoumarins from Kaffir lime and their inhibitory effects on inflammatory mediator production. Cogent Chem 2018;4:1529259.
40. Reanmongkol W, Noppapan T, Subhadhirasakul S. Antinociceptive, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. leaf extract in experimental animals. J Nat Med 2009;63:290-6.
41. Bhadoriya SS, Mishra V, Raut S, Ganeshpurkar A, Jain SK. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of a hydroethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica leaves. Sci Pharm 2012;80:685-700.
42. Kuru P. Tamarindus indica and its health-related effects. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2014;4:676-81.
43. Kim YH, Kim KH, Han CS, Park SH, Yang HC, Lee BY, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of Crinum asiaticum Linne var. japonicum extract and its application as a cosmeceutical ingredient. J Cosmet Sci 2008;59:419-30.
44. Rahman MA, Hossain SMA, Ahmed NU, Islam MS. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Crinum asiaticum leaf alcoholic extract in animal models. Afr J Biotechnol 2013;12:212-8.
45. Mali RG. Cleome viscosa (wild mustard): a review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. Pharm Biol 2010;48:105-12.
46. Garg T, Rath G, Goyal AK. A comprehensive review on additives of topical dosage forms for drug delivery. Drug Delivery 2015;22:969-87.
47. Ambriz Perez DL, Leyva Lopez N, Gutierrez Grijalva EP, Basilio Heredia J. Phenolic compounds: natural alternative in inflammation treatment. a review. Cogent Food Agric 2016;2:1131412.
48. Kassab HJ, Thomas LM, Jabir SA. Development and physical characterization of a periodontal bioadhesive gel of gatifloxacin. Int J Appl Pharm 2017;9:31-6.
49. Oyedele AO, John OO, Ogungbemi HO, Olateju SO. Ocular tolerance and in vitro release of chloramphenicol in prospective eye ointment bases. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:306-11.
50. Jankowski A, Dyja R, Sarecka Hujar B. Dermal and transdermal delivery of active substances from semisolid bases. Indian J Pharm Sci 2017;79:488-500.
51. ?ilius M, Ramanauskien? K, Briedis V. Release of propolis phenolic acids from semisolid formulations and their penetration into the human skin in vitro. J Evidence Based Complementary Altern Med 2013:958717:1-7.
52. Dua K. Application of model-independent approach on in vitro release of extemporaneously prepared semisolid formulations containing metronidazole with marketed silver sulfadiazine 1% cream, USP: a comparative investigation. Bull Pharm Res 2013;3:1-5.
53. Gardavska K, Vitkoca Z, Cizmarik J. The influence of ointment bases on the liberation of some derivatives of phenylcarbamic acids. Acta Pol Pharm 1999;56:375-80.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.