• YANI CORVIANINDYA RAHAYU Department of Oral Biology Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jember, Jember, Indonesia,
  • ARDO SABIR Department of Conservative Dentistry Faculty of Dentistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
  • DYAH SETYORINI Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jember, Jember, Indonesia


Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the red dragon fruit extract (Hylocereuspolyrhizus) to the growth of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans).

Methods: Red dragon fruit peel and pulp extract were obtained by maceration using ethanol 96%. Pathological isolates S. mutans was obtained from Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jember. The inhibition testing method has used well diffusion method. The treatment is started by giving red dragon fruit peel and pulp extract concentration of 100%, 50%, 0.2% chlorhexidine and aquadest sterile in each of the wells, then incubated for 24 h and was measured using a digital caliper. The antibacterial activities were assessed by the presence of inhibition zones after incubating the plates at 37 °C for 24 h.

Results: Based on the results of inhibition zone calculation, on average the biggest inhibition zone found in the positive control group(16.84 mm), then followed by peel100% (10.34 mm), peel50%(8.57 mm), pulp100% (6.79 mm), and pulp50%(5.93 mm). The higher concentration on the peel and pulp of the fruit shows the bigger inhibition zone diameter. The Kruskall-Wallis test showed a significant difference (p<0.05) and Mann Whitney test results showed a significant difference between the study group (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The red dragon fruit extract (Hylocereuspolyrhizus) showed significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans, and inhibition power ability of fruit peel extract is larger in inhibiting the S. mutans than its pulp ability.

Keywords: Red dragon fruit extract, Antibacterial activity, Streptococcus mutans


1. Bagramian RA, Godoy FG, Volpe AR. The global increase in dental caries. A pending public health crisis. Am J Dent 2009;22:3-8.
2. Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas). Kesehatan gigi dsn mulut. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2013. p. 110-8.
3. Octiara E, Budiardjo SB. Streptococcus mutans: Faktor virulensi dan target spesifik vaksin. Maj Ked Gigi 2008;13:180-5.
4. Purwandari P, Dewi N, Lia Y Budiarti. The influence of peat water to the colony number of aerob bacteria in the mouth. J Dentomaxillofac Sci 2016;1:95-8.
5. Pratiwi R. Perbedaan daya hambat terhadap streptococcus mutans dari beberapa pasta gigi yang mengandung herbal. Maj Ked Gigi 2005;38:64-7.
6. Nurliyana R, Syed ZI, Mustapha SK, Aisyah MR, Kamarul RK. Antioxidant study of pulp and peel of dragon fruits: a comparative study. Int Food Res J 2010;17:367-75.
7. Amalia S, Wahdaningsih S, Untari EK. Antibacterial activity testing of n-hexane fraction of red dragon (hylocereuspolyrhizus britton and rose) fruit peel on staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Trad Med J 2014;19:89-94.
8. Fajriani, Yusriyanti M. Comparison of efficacy rinsing with cocoa seed extract, green tea catechins extract and lime extract to salivary ph in children suffering ECC (Early Childhood Caries). J Dentomaxillofac Sci 2018;3:20-3.
9. Ichsan MI, Abdul HA, Fakhrurrazi, Dewi M, Jalaluddin M. Antibacterial test of red dragon fruit extract peel (hylocereus polyrhizus) against bacteria salmonella pullorum. J Med Vet 2018;12:9-14.
10. Nwadinigwe AO, Onyeidu EG. Bioremediation of crude oil-polluted soil using bacteria and poultry manure monitores through soybean productivity. Pol J Environ Stud 2012;21:171-6.
11. Elias, Anil J. General chemistry experiments. Universities Press: (India) Private Limited; 2002.
12. Choo WS, Yong WK. Antioxidant properties of two species of Hylocereus fruits. Adv Appl Sci Res 2011;2:418-25.
13. Dharmautama M, Tetelepta R, Ikbal M, Warti AEA. Effect of mangrove leaves extract (avicennia marina) concentration on the growth of streptococcus mutans and candida albicans. J Dentomaxillofac Sci 2017;2:155-9.
14. Ali S, Khan MR, Irfanullah, Sajid M, Zahra Z. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial appraisal of parrotiopsis jacquemontiana (Decne) rehder. BMC Complementary Altern Med 2018;18:43.
15. Hussein ZG, Ali N, Mohammed AK. The effect of pomegranate peel extract and vitamin c in comparison with gemifloxacin on inhibiting adhesion of escherichia coli to uroepithelial cells. Zanco J Med Sci 2013;17:429-34.
16. Xie Y, Yang W, Tang F, Chen X, Ren L. Antibacterial activities of flavonoids: structure-activity relationship and mechanism. Curr Med Chem 2015;22:132-49.
17. Chushnie TPT, Lamb AJ. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. Int J Antimicrob Agric 2005;26:343-56.
18. Setyorini D, Rahayu YC, Sistyaningrum T. The effects of rinsing red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) juice on streptococcus sp. dental plaque. J Dentomaxillofac Sci 2017; 2:15-7.
19. Karou S, Canini Y, Montesano S, Colizzi Te. Antibacterial activity of alkaloids from sidaacuta. Afr J Biotechnol 2005;4:1452-7.
20. Cowan M. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol 1999;12:564-82.
21. Davidson PM, Sofos JN, Brenem AL. Antimicrobial in foods. 3rd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc; 2005.
22. Malanovic N, Lohner K. Gram-positive bacterial cell envelopes: the impact on the activity of antimicrobial peptides. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 2016:936-46.
506 Views | 165 Downloads
How to Cite
Original Article(s)