SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES (SLNs) AS NANO DRUG DELIVERY CARRIERS: PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION
Over the last few years, there has been a significant consideration of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) as an alternative method to other colloidal dispersion methods for drug delivery. Special consideration has been given to the use of SLNs as a drug carrier in recent years. SLNs are aqueous dispersions in which the colloidal particles consist of solid lipids that are biodegradable. As a result of their physical stability, the protection of the entrapped drug from decomposition, the provision of controlled drug release, and the exceptional acceptability, SLNs have several advantages over other drug carriers. This article focuses on the techniques of SLNs preparation and characterization, the effect of formulation variables on SLNs properties, the routes of administration, and the pharmaceutical applications. The data used for this review was collected by searching on Google Scholar and PubMed using the following keywords during the period from 2010 to date.
2. Muller R, Radtke M, Wissing S. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) in cosmetic and dermatological preparations. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 2002;54:131-55.
3. Mandawgade S, Patravale V. Development of SLNs from natural lipids: application to topical delivery of tretinoin. Int J Pharm 2008;363:132-8.
4. Amoabediny G, Haghiralsadat F, Naderinezhad S, Helder M, Akhoundi Kharanaghi E, Mohammadnejad Arough J, et al. Overview of preparation methods of polymeric and lipid-based (niosome, solid lipid, liposome) nanoparticles: a comprehensive review. Int J Polym Mater Polym Biomater 2018;67:383-400.
5. Kakkar Thukral D, Dumoga SK, Mishra A. Solid lipid nanoparticles: promising therapeutic nanocarriers for drug delivery. Curr Drug Delivery 2014;11:771-91.
6. Mukherjee S, Ray S, Thakur RS. Solid lipid nanoparticles: a modern formulation approach in drug delivery system. Indian J Pharm Sci 2009;71:349.
7. Chakraborty S, Shukla D, Mishra B, Singh S. Lipid–an emerging platform for oral delivery of drugs with poor bioavailability. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2009;73:1-15.
8. Weber S, Zimmer A, Pardeike J. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for pulmonary application: a review of the state of the art. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2014;86:7-22.
9. Mehnert W, Mäder K. Solid lipid nanoparticles: production, characterization, and applications. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 2012;64:83-101.
10. Ramteke K, Joshi S, Dhole S. Solid lipid nanoparticle: a review. IOSR J Pharm 2012;2:34-44.
11. Naseri N, Valizadeh H, Zakeri Milani P. Solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers: structure, preparation and application. Adv Pharm Bull 2015;5:305-13.
12. Garud A, Singh D, Garud N. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN): method, characterization, and applications. Int Cur Pharm J 2012;1:384-93.
13. Shirodkar RK, Kumar L, Mutalik S, Lewis S. Solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers: emerging lipid-based drug delivery systems. Pharm Chem J 2019;53:1-4.
14. Souto E, Muller R. Lipid nanoparticles (solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers) for cosmetic, dermal, and transdermal applications. Drugs Pharm Sci 2007;166:213.
15. Trotta M, Debernardi F, Caputo O. Preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles by a solvent emulsification–diffusion technique. Int J Pharm 2003;257:153-60.
16. Al Haj N, Abdullah R, Ibrahim S, Bustamam A. Tamoxifen drug loading solid lipid nanoparticles prepared by hot high-pressure homogenization techniques. Am J Pharmacol Toxicol 2008;3:219.
17. Ekambaram P, Sathali A, Priyanka K. Solid lipid nanoparticles: a review. Sci Rev Chem Commun 2012;2:80-102.
18. Muller RH, Mader K, Gohla S. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for controlled drug delivery–a review of state of the art. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2000;50:161-77.
19. Pn Remya, Damodharan N. Formulation, development, and characterization of cilnidipine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:120-5.
20. Parhi R, Suresh P. Production of solid lipid nanoparticles-drug loading and release mechanism. J Chem Pharm Res 2010;2:211-27.
21. Karami MA, Zadeh BSM, Koochak M, Moghimipur E. Superoxide dismutase-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared by cold homogenization method: characterization and permeation study through burned rat skin. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod 2016;11:e33968.
22. Teja VC, Chowdary VH, Raju YP, Surendra N, Vardhan RV, Reddy BKK. A glimpse on solid lipid nanoparticles as drug delivery systems. J Global Trends Pharm Sci 2014;5:1649-57.
23. Manjunath K, Reddy J, Venkateswarlu V. Solid lipid nanoparticles as drug delivery systems. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2005;27:127-44.
24. Patwekar S, Gattani S, Giri R, Bade A, Sangewar B, Raut V. Review on nanoparticles used in cosmetics and dermal products. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;3:1407-21.
25. Swidan S, Ghonaim H, Samy A, Ghorab M. Comparative study of solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers for in vitro paclitaxel delivery. J Chem Pharm Res 2016;8:482-93.
26. Shelat P, Mandowara VK, Gupta DG, Patel S. Formulation of curcuminoid loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in order to improve oral bioavailability. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:278-82.
27. Ganesan P, Narayanasamy D. Lipid nanoparticles: different preparation techniques, characterization, hurdles, and strategies for the production of solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers for oral drug delivery. Sustainable Chem Pharm 2017;6:37-56.
28. Wang T, Hu Q, Zhou M, Xue J, Luo Y. Preparation of ultra-fine powders from polysaccharide-coated solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers by innovative nano spray drying technology. Int J Pharm 2016;511:219-22.
29. Sosnik A, Seremeta KP. Advantages and challenges of the spray-drying technology for the production of pure drug particles and drug-loaded polymeric carriers. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2015;223:40-54.
30. Kamboj S, Bala S, Nair A. Solid lipid nanoparticles: an effective lipid-based technology for poorly water-soluble drugs. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2010;5:78-90.
31. Mendoza Munoz N, Alcala Alcala S, Quintanar Guerrero D. Preparation of polymer nanoparticles by the emulsification-solvent evaporation method: from Vanderhoff's pioneer approach to recent adaptations. In: Polymer Nanoparticles for Nanomedicines. Springer, Cham; 2016. p. 87-121.
32. Patravale VB, Mirani AG. Preparation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles-based gel for topical delivery. In: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Humana, New York, NY; 2019. p. 293-302.
33. Kaur T, Slavcev R. Solid lipid nanoparticles: tuneable anti-cancer gene/drug delivery systems. In: Novel Gene Therapy Approaches. Intech Open; 2013.
34. Amasya G, Badilli U, Aksu B, Tarimci N. Quality by design case study 1: Design of 5-fluorouracil loaded lipid nanoparticles by the W/O/W double emulsion—solvent evaporation method. Eur J Pharm Sci 2016;84:92-102.
35. Kumar S, Dilbaghi N, Saharan R, Bhanjana G. Nanotechnology as emerging tool for enhancing the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. J Bionanosci 2012;2:227-50.
36. Leonardi A, Greco AS, Pignatello R, Fuochi V, Petronio Petronio G, Furneri PM. A method for efficient loading of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in cationic solid lipid nanoparticles: formulation and microbiological evaluation. Nanomaterials 2018;8:2079-4991.
37. Khatak S, Dureja H. Recent techniques and patents on solid lipid nanoparticles as novel carrier for drug delivery. Recent Pat Nanotechnol 2015;9:150-77.
38. Yadav P, Soni G, Mahor A, Alok S, Singh P, Verma A. Solid lipid nanoparticles: an effective and promising drug delivery system-a review. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2014;5:1152.
39. Chattopadhyay P, Shekunov Y, Yim D, Cipolla D, Boyd B, Farr S. Production of solid lipid nanoparticle suspensions using supercritical fluid extraction of emulsions (SFEE) for pulmonary delivery using the AERx system. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 2007;59:444-53.
40. Couto R, Alvarez V, Temelli F. Encapsulation of vitamin B2 in solid lipid nanoparticles using supercritical CO2. J Supercrit Fluids 2017;120:432-42.
41. Singh R. Preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles through various methods using different precursors. J Drug Delivery Ther 2019;9:415-9.
42. Kakadia G, Conway R. Solid lipid nanoparticles: a potential approach for dermal drug delivery. Am J Pharmacol Sci 2014;2:5A.
43. Schwarz Luo Y, Chen D, Ren L, Zhao X, Qin J. Solid lipid nanoparticles for enhancing vinpocetine's oral bioavailability. J Controlled Release 2006;114:53-9.
44. Luo Y, Chen D, Ren L, Zhao X, Qin J. Solid lipid nanoparticles for enhancing vinpocetine's oral bioavailability. J Controlled Release 2006;114:53-9.
45. Butani D, Yewale C, Misra A. Topical amphotericin b solid lipid nanoparticles: design and development. Colloids Surf B 2016;139:17-24.
46. Kunasekaran V, Krishnamoorthy K. Formulation and evaluation of nanoscale solid lipid particles containing a hydrophilic drug-rasagiline mesylate. J Appl Pharm Sci 2016;6:44-50.
47. De Assis N, Mosqueira F, Vilela C, Andrade S, Cardoso N. Release profiles and morphological characterization by atomic force microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy of 99mTechnetium-fluconazole nanocapsules. Int J Pharm 2008;349:152-60.
48. Pal L, Jana U, Manna K, Mohanta P, Manavalan R. Nanoparticle: an overview of preparation and characterization. J Appl Pharm Sci 2011;1:228-34.
49. Kaliamurthi S, Selvaraj G. Insight on solid lipid nanoparticles: characterization and application in diabetes mellitus. J Crit Rev 2003;3:11-6.
50. Ansari MJ, Anwer MK, Jamil S, Al-Shdefat R, Ali BE, Ahmad MM, Ansari MN. Enhanced oral bioavailability of insulin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: pharmacokinetic bioavailability of insulin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in diabetic rats. Drug Delivery 2016;23:1972-9.
51. Mahajan A, Kaur S, Kaur S. Design, formulation, and characterization of stearic acid-based solid lipid nanoparticles of candesartan cilexetil to augment its oral bioavailability. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:344-50.
52. Chetoni P, Burgalassi S, Monti D, Tampucci S, Tullio V, Cuffini AM, et al. Solid lipid nanoparticles as a promising tool for intraocular tobramycin delivery: pharmacokinetic studies on rabbits. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2016;109:214-23.
53. Bhaskar K, Anbu J, Ravichandiran V, Venkateswarlu V, Rao M. Lipid nanoparticles for transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen: formulation, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies. Lipids Health Disease 2009;8:6.
54. Gonullu U, Uner M, Yener G, Fatma Karaman EC, Aydogmus Z. Formulation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers and nanoemulsion of lornoxicam for transdermal delivery. Acta Pharm 2015;65:1-3.
55. Jain S, Jain S, Khare P, Gulbake A, Bansal D, Jain SK. Design and development of solid lipid nanoparticles for topical delivery of an anti-fungal agent. Drug Delivery 2010;17:443-51.
56. Hamsika M, Gowda DV, Vindru J, Moin A. Nanotechnology for ophthalmic preparations. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2016;8:5-11.
57. Rosiere R, Van Woensel M, Gelbcke M, Mathieu V, Hecq J, Mathivet T, et al. New folate-grafted chitosan derivative to improve the delivery of paclitaxel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for lung tumor therapy by inhalation. Mol Pharm 2018;15:899-910.
58. Tupal A, Sabzichi M, Ramezani F, Kouhsoltani M, Hamishehkar H. Dermal delivery of doxorubicin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for the treatment of skin cancer. J Microencapsulation 2016;33:372-80.
59. Liu J, Hu W, Chen H, Ni Q, Xu H, Yang X. Isotretinoin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles with skin targeting for topical delivery. Int J Pharm 2007;328:191-95.
60. Wang W, Zhang L, Chen T, Guo W, Bao X, Wang D, Ren B, et al. Anticancer effects of resveratrol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles on human breast cancer cells. Molecules 2017;22:1814.
61. Jain K, Chourasia K, Masuriha R, Soni V, Jain A, Jain K, et al. Solid lipid nanoparticles were bearing flurbiprofen for transdermal delivery. Drug Delivery 2005;12:207-15.
62. Bhandari R, Kaur IP. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and relative bioavailability of isoniazid-solid lipid nanoparticles. Int J Pharm 2013;441:202-12.
63. Sarangi MK, Padhi S. Solid lipid nanoparticles-a review. J Critical Rev 2016;3:5-12.
64. Abdelgawad, Nas M, Hamza MY, Awad GAS. Topical and systemic dermal carriers for psoriasis. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2016;8:4-9.
65. Kelidari HR, Saeedi M, Akbari J, Morteza Semnani K, Gill P, Valizadeh H, Nokhodchi A. Formulation optimization and in vitro skin penetration of spironolactone loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Colloids Surf B 2015;128:473-9.
66. Sailaja K, Amareshwar P, Chakravarty P. Formulation of solid lipid nanoparticles and their applications. Curr Pharma Res 2011;1:197.
67. Souto B, Müller H. Cosmetic features and applications of lipid nanoparticles (SLN®, NLC®). Int J Cosmet Sci 2008;30:157-65
68. Wissing SA, Muller RH. Cosmetic applications for solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Int J Pharm 2003;254:65-8.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.