IN VITRO ANTICOAGULANT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF PRASAPLAI RECIPE AND ZINGIBER CASSUMUNAR ROXB. EXTRACTS
Keywords:Prasaplai, Zingiber cassumunar Roxb, Coagulation, Antioxidant, Total phenol content, Thrombosis
Objective: This present study aimed to evaluate the anticoagulant activity and antioxidant properties of Prasaplai recipe (PPR), a Thai traditional
medicine, and its major ingredient, Zingiber cassumunar (ZC) Roxb. extracts, seeking new therapeutic purposes for the recipe.
Methods: Aqueous extracts of PPR and ZC Roxb. were prepared by hot water decoction technique. The anticoagulant activity of the extracts was
evaluated by prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) tests. In addition to anticoagulant activity, total phenol
content and antioxidant activity were investigated. Total phenol content was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant activity was
estimated by DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay.
Results: The APTT of plasma samples mixed with the PPR and ZC Roxb. extracts was significantly prolonged (p<0.05) at the concentration of
1.0 mg/ml and above comparing to the control (normal saline solution) but was no significantly different for the PT. These results suggested that
PPR and ZC Roxb. extracts showed anticoagulant activity affecting the function of coagulation factor in the intrinsic pathway. All aqueous extracts
possessed considerable antioxidant activity and were rich in total polyphenol.
Conclusion: This finding indicates that the aqueous extracts possess significant anticoagulant and antioxidant activities, thus showing the potential
PPR and ZC Roxb. as a new source of bioactive compounds for therapeutic purposes, with particular emphasis on the prevention and treatment of
Assoc Thai 2004;87 Suppl 4:S52-7.
2. Vannabhum M, Poopong S, Wongwananuruk T, Nimmannit A,
Suwannatrai U, Dangrat C, et al. The efficacy of Thai herbal prasaplai
formula for treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: A short-term
randomized controlled trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
3. Farnsworth NR, Bunyapraphatsara N. Thai Medicinal Plants:
Recommended for Primary Health Care System. Bangkok: Medicinal
Plant Information Center; 1992.
4. Department for Development of Thai Traditional and Alternative
Medicine. List of Herbal Medicinal Product A.D 2008. Bangkok:
Ministry Public Health; 2008.
5. Department for Development of Thai Traditional and Alternative
Medicine. List of Herbal Medicinal Product A.D 2006. Bangkok:
Ministry Public Health; 2006.
6. Lee W, Yoo H, Ku SK, Kim JA, Bae JS. Anticoagulant activities of
piperlonguminine in vitro and in vivo. BMB Rep 2013;46:484-9.
7. Ambrose JA, Weinrauch M. Thrombosis in ischemic heart disease.
Arch Intern Med 1996;156:1382-94.
8. Gorelick PB. Cerebrovascular disease. Pathophysiology and diagnosis.
Nurs Clin North Am 1986;21:275-88.
9. Waldo AL. Anticoagulation: Stroke prevention in patients with atrial
fibrillation. Cardiol Clin 2009;27:125-35, ix.
10. Hubbard GP, Wolffram S, Lovegrove JA, Gibbins JM. The role of
polyphenolic compounds in the diet as inhibitors of platelet function.
Proc Nutr Soc 2003;62:469-78.
11. Slevin M, Ahmed N, Wang Q, McDowell G, Badimon L. Unique
vascular protective properties of natural products: Supplements or
future main-line drugs with significant anti-atherosclerotic potential?
Vasc Cell 2012;4:9.
12. Fuentes E, Palomo I. Antiplatelet effects of natural bioactive
compounds by multiple targets: Food and drug interactions. J Funct
13. Gritsanapan W, Tangyuenyongwatana P. Standardization of prasaplai, a
Thai traditional preparation for antidysmenorrhea. Botanics 2016;6:1-9.
14. Daswani PG, Ghadge AA, Brijesh S, Birdi TJ. Preparation of decoction
of medicinal plants: A self-help measure? J Altern Complement Med
15. Khan H, Khan MA, Mahmood T, Choudhary MI. Antimicrobial
activities of Gloriosa superba Linn (Colchicaceae) extracts. J Enzyme
Inhib Med Chem 2008;23:855-9.
16. John B, Sulaiman CT, George S, Reddy VR. Total phenolics and
flavonoids in selected medicinal plants from Kerala. Int J Pharm Pharm
17. Sanna D, Delogu G, Mulas M, Schirra M, Fadda A. Determination of
free radical scavenging activity of plant extracts through DPPH assay:
An EPR and UV-vis study. Food Anal Method 2012;5:759-66.
18. Rabeta MS, Faraniza RN. Total phenolic content and ferric reducing
antioxidant power of the leaves and fruits of Garcinia atrovirdis and
Cynometra cauliflora. Int Food Res J 2013;20:1691-6.
19. Palta S, Saroa R, Palta A. Overview of the coagulation system. Indian J
20. Mao W, Li H, Li Y, Zhang H, Qi X, Sun H, et al. Chemical characteristic
and anticoagulant activity of the sulfated polysaccharide isolated
from Monostroma latissimum (Chlorophyta). Int J Biol Macromol
21. Casey TE, Dougan J, Matthews WS, Nabney J. Essential oil of “phlai”
Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. from Thailand. Trop Sci 1971;13:199-202.
22. Tangyuenyongwatana P, Keeratinijakal V, Gritsanapani W. Thin-layer
chromatography-densitometry analysis of dimethoxyphenylbutadiene
content in Zingiber cassumunar rhizomes. J AOAC Int
23. Bhuiyan MN, Chowdhury JU, Begum J. Volatile constituents of
essential oils isolated from leaf and rhizome of Zingiber cassumunar
Roxb. Bangl J Pharmacol 2008;3:69-73.
24. Fukao H, Yoshida H, Tazawa Y, Hada T. Antithrombotic effects of
odorless garlic powder both in vitro and in vivo. Biosci Biotechnol
25. Félix-Silva J, Souza T, Camara RB, Cabral B, Silva-Júnior AA,
Rebecchi IM, et al. In vitro anticoagulant and antioxidant activities of
Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) leaves aiming therapeutical
applications. BMC Complement Altern Med 2014;14:405.
26. Khobjai W, Sukati S, Jarmkom K, Eakwaropas P, Techaoei S.
Evaluation of thrombolytic activity of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. and
Thai herbal prasaplai formula. World Acad Sci Eng Technol Int J Med
Health Biomed Bioeng Pharm Eng 2017;11:268-71.
27. Gorinstein S, Zachwieja Z, Katrich E, Pawelzik E, Haruenkit R,
Trakhtenberg S, et al. Comparison of the contents of the main
antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant activity of white grapefruit
and his new hybrid. LWT Food Sci Technol 2004;37:337-43.
28. Hodzic Z, Pasalic H, Memisevic A, Srabovic M, Saletovic M,
Poljakovic M. The influence of the total phenols content on antioxidant
capacity in the whole grain extracts. Eur J Sci Res 2009;28:471-7.
29. Wu LC, Hsu HW, Chen YC, Chiu CC, Lin YI, Ho JA. Antioxidant and
antiproliferative activities of red pitaya. Food Chem 2006;95:319-27.
30. Yang D, Zhang Q, Ren G, Ying T. A comparative study on antioxidant
activity of different parts of lotus (Nelumbo nuficera Gaertn) rhizome.
Food Sci Technol (Campinas) 2007;37:135-7.
31. Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as
a measure of “antioxidant power”: The FRAP assay. Anal Biochem
32. Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G. Structure-antioxidant activity
relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radic Biol Med
33. Moure A, Franco D, Sineiro J, Dom??nguez H, Núñez MJ, Lema JM.
Antioxidant activity of extracts from Gevuina avellana and Rosa
rubiginosa defatted seeds. Food Res Int 2001;34:103-9.