• HAZWANI MOHD YUSOF Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Campus Sungai Buloh, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • SHARANIZA AB-RAHIM Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Campus Sungai Buloh, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • WAN ZURINAH WAN NGAH Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Batu 9 Cheras, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • SHEILA NATHAN Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • RAHMAN A. JAMAL A. UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute, UKM Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • MUSALMAH MAZLAN UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute, UKM Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


Objective: The aim of this study is to characterize the metabolite profiles of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells of different stages of the disease to understand
the pathophysiological changes that may help to identify prevention strategies as well as the sites for potential therapeutic drug actions.
Methods: Six CRC cell lines of different stages (classified using the Dukes classification) were used, and they are SW 1116 (stage A), HT 29 and SW
480 (stage B), HCT 15 and DLD-1 (stage C), and HCT 116 (stage D). Metabolites were extracted using methanol and water, and metabolic profiling was
performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mass profiler professional software was used for statistical analysis.
Results: There were 111,096 compounds detected across the samples, and 24 metabolites were identified to be significantly different between
the CRC stages. Most notably, there were eight metabolites that were significantly upregulated in the more advanced stages (B, C, and D) compared
with Stage A. These metabolites include flavin mononucleotide, l-methionine, muricatacin, amillaripin, 2-methylbutyroylcarnitine, lumichrome,
hexadeconoic acid, and lysoPE (0:0/16:0).
Conclusion: This study showed that the expressions of metabolites at different stages of CRC were different, which represent the metabolic changes
occurring as CRC advances. The knowledge may help identify biomarkers for the staging of CRC, which could improve its prognosis as well as provide
a basis for the development of therapeutic interventions.

Keywords: Colorectal cancer, Metabolomics, Cancer stages


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How to Cite
YUSOF, H. M., AB-RAHIM, S., WAN NGAH, W. Z., NATHAN, S., JAMAL A., R. A., & MAZLAN, M. (2019). METABOLITES PROFILE OF COLORECTAL CANCER CELLS AT DIFFERENT STAGES. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 11(5), 66-70.
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