THE EFFECT OF HOMALANTHUS POPULNEUS (GIESEL.) PAX. EXTRACT IN EXPRESSION OF T-CELL RECEPTOR: INHIBITION STUDY OF HIV INFECTION
Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of Homalanthus populneus’s extract toward the expression of CD4 and CD8 which both are
important in body’s defense mechanism against HIV.
Methods: Leaves and barks of H. populneus were extracted with 70% ethanol. Freeze dry method had been used in order to get the final extract.
PBMCs were extracted and it has been used for CD4 and CD8 expression test using flow cytometry. In oreder to analyze the effect of the extract to the
HIV type 1, gp41 and gp120 expression was tested using talicytometry and using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively.
Results: This study reported that H. populneus’s extract reduced the expression of CD4 receptor in both peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)
and T-lymphoblast cell line (CEM). In contract, this extract increased CD8 expression in PBMC. It was also able to reduce the percentage of protein
gp41 and gp120 in CEM cultures.
Conclusion: Those results show that H. populneus’s extract is potentially developed as an HIV drug from Indonesia. However, further study needs to
be done including analyzing the effect of variety of concentrations and also exposure periods.
Ishitoya J, Szallasi Z, et al. A nonpromoting phorbol from the samoan
medicinal plant Homalanthus nutans inhibits cell killing by HIV-1.
J Med Chem 1992;35:1978-86.
2. Johnson HE, Banack SA, Cox PA. Variability in content of the anti-
AIDS drug candidate prostratin in Samoan populations of Homalanthus
nutans. J Nat Prod 2008;71:2041-4.
3. Goel G, Makkar HP, Francis G, Becker K. Phorbol esters:
Structure, biological activity, and toxicity in animals. Int J Toxicol
4. Biancotto A, Grivel JC, Gondois-Rey F, Bettendroffer L, Vigne R,
Brown S, et al. Dual role of prostratin in inhibition of infection
and reactivation of human immunodeficiency virus from latency
in primary blood lymphocytes and lymphoid tissue. J Virol
5. Korin YD, Brooks DG, Brown S, Korotzer A, Zack JA. Effects of
prostratin on T-cell activation and human immunodeficiency virus
latency. J Virol 2002;76:8118-23.
6. Fatimah A, Isnan M, Nirwantono R, Haryatfrehni R. Identifikasi
Senyawa Prostratin pada Tumbuhan Homalanthus populneus di
Indonesia Sebagai Anti Virus HIV-AIDS. Yogyakarta: Laporan
Penelitian PKM Fakultas Biologi UGM; 2012.
7. Brown M, Wittwer C. Flow cytometry: Principles and clinical
applications in hematology. Clin Chem 2000;46:1221-9.
8. Kulkosky J, Culnan DM, Roman J, Dornadula G, Schnell M,
Boyd MR, et al. Prostratin: Activation of latent HIV-1 expression
suggests a potential inductive adjuvant therapy for HAART. Blood
9. Law MG, Li Y, McDonald AM, Cooper DA, Kaldor JM. Estimating the
population impact in Australia of improved antiretroviral treatment for
HIV infection. AIDS 2000;14:197-201.
10. McGowan JP, Sanjiv S. Understanding HIV Tropism; 2010. Available from:
[Last accessed on 2014 Oct 01].
11. Fanales-Belasio E, Raimondo M, Suligoi B, Buttò S. HIV virology and
pathogenetic mechanisms of infection: A brief overview. Ann Ist Super
12. Campbell NA, Reece JB, Mitchell LG, Taylor MR. Biology. 4th ed. San
Fransisco: Addison Wesley World Student Series; 2009.
13. Dalby B, Cates S, Harris A, Ohki EC, Tilkins ML, Price PJ, et al.
Advanced transfection with lipofectamine 2000 reagent: Primary
neurons, siRNA, and high-throughput applications. Methods 2004;
14. Deng H, Liu R, Ellmeier W, Choe S, Unutmaz D, Burkhart M, et al.
Identification of a major co-receptor for primary isolates of HIV-1.
15. Dragic T, Litwin V, Allaway GP, Martin SR, Huang Y, Nagashima KA,
et al. HIV-1 entry into CD4+ cells is mediated by the chemokine
receptor CC-CKR-5. Nature 1996;381:667-73.
16. Gulick RM, Mellors JW, Havlir D, Eron JJ, Gonzalez C, McMahon D,
et al. Treatment with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine in adults
with human immunodeficiency virus infection and prior antiretroviral
therapy. N Engl J Med 1997;337:734-9.
17. Jenny P, Louw M, Pakkiri D, Jacobs M. Working with HIV/AIDS. Cape
Town: Juta Legal and Academic Publishers; 2006.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.