• SABITRI BINDHANI Department of Formulation and Development, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha ‘O’anusandhan, Deemed to be University, Kalinga Nagar, Bhubaneswar 751030
  • SNEHAMAYEE MOHAPATRA Department of Formulation and Development, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha ‘O’anusandhan, Deemed to be University, Kalinga Nagar, Bhubaneswar 751030
  • RAJAT KUMAR KAR Department of Pharmaceutics, Dadhichi College of Pharmacy, Cuttack 754002



Solid-smedds, Liquid-smedds, Adsorption technique, Aerosil 200, Solubility and dissolution, Nifedipine


Objective: The objective of this work was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Nifedipine by preparing a solid-self micro emulsifying drug delivery system (Solid-smedds).

Methods: Liquid-self-emulsifying drug delivery system formulations were prepared by using linseed oil as oil, tween 80 as a surfactant and PEG 400 as cosurfactant. Components were selected by solubility screening studies and the self-emulsifying region was identified by the pseudo-ternary phase diagram. Thermodynamic stability study was performed for the determination of stable liquid-smedds formulation. These formulations were evaluated for self-emulsification time, drug content analysis, robustness to dilution test, particle size analysis, in vitro diffusion study, and Stability study. Solid self-micro emulsifying formulations were prepared by using aerosil-200 at a different ratio. Lf9S (0.65:1) was selected due to its highest drug entrapment efficiency and a decrease in particle size. It was selected for further studies into DSC, SEM, FTIR, and XRD analysis.

Results: DSC and XRD result shows that the drug within the formulation was in the amorphous state. From the SEM study, it was observed that the drug has been uniformly distributed and having a smooth surface. From the in vitro dissolution study, it improved the dissolution rate of nifedipine which was 98.70% of drug release where pure drug release only 6.72%.

Conclusion: In conclusion, a solid self-micro emulsifying drug delivery system is improved the solubility and drug release rate but also improved the stability of the formulation.


Kohli K, Chopra S, Dhar D, Arora S, Khar RK. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems: an approach to enhance oral bioavailability. Drug Discovery Today 2009;15:958-65.

Shahba AA, Mohsin K, Alanazi FK. Novel self-nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) for oral delivery of cinnarizine: design, optimization, and in vitro assessment. AAPS PharmSciTech 2012;13:967-77.

Radha GV, Sastri KT, Burada S, Rajkumar J. A systematic review on self-micro emulsifying drug delivery systems: a potential strategy for drugs with poor oral bioavailability. Int J Appl Pharm 2019;11:23-33.

Taneja R, Gupta GD. Development and characterization pulsatile microspheres of nifedipine for hypertension. Recent Patents Drug Delivery Formulation 2017;11:67-76.

Sood J, Sapra B, Tiwary AK. Microemulsion transdermal formulation for simultaneous delivery of valsartan and nifedipine: formulation by design. AAPS PharmSciTech 2017;18:1901-16.

Mancia G, Cha G, Gil-Extremera B, Harvey P, Lewin AJ, Villa G. Blood pressure-lowering effects of nifedipine/candesartan combinations in high-risk individuals: subgroup analysis of the distinct randomized trial. J Hum Hypertens 2016;31:1–11.

ESC Press Office. Commonly used heart drugs associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest. European Heart Rhythm Association: Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy; 2019.

Zhao T, Guo D, Gu Y, Ling Y. Nifedipine stimulates proliferation and migration of different breast cancer cells by distinct pathways. Mol Med Rep 2017;16:2259-63.

Singh B, Beg S, Khurana RK, Sandhu PS, Kaur R, Katare OP. Recent advances in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS). Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 2014;31:121-85.

Tang B, Cheng G, Gu JC, Xu CH. Development of solid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems: preparation techniques and dosage forms. Drug Discovery Today 2008;13:606-12.

Chouksey R, Pandey H, Jain AK, Soni H, Saraogi GK. Preparation and evaluation of the self emulsifying drug delivery system containing atorvastatin HMG­COA inhibitor. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;3:147­52.

Agrawal AG, Kumar A, Gide PS. Self-emulsifying drug delivery system for enhanced solubility and dissolution of glipizide. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2015;126:553-60.

Kanghee JO, Hyeongmin KIM, Khadka P, Taejun J, Jin KS, Seong Ha H, et al. Enhanced intestinal lymphatic absorption of saquinavir through supersaturated self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems. AJPS 2019;14. 2018.11.009.

Jha SK, Dey S, Kark R. Micro emulsions-potential carrier for improved drug delivery. AJBPS 2011;1:5-9.

Kallakunta VR, Jukanti R, Veerareddy PR. Oral self-emulsifying powder of lercanidipine hydrochloride: formulation and evaluation. Powder Technol 2012;221:375–82.

Vrunda C Suthar, Shital B Butani. Preparation and evaluation of self-micro emulsifying drug delivery systems of lercanidipine HCl using medium and short chain glycerides: a comparative study. Asian J Pharm 2016;10:256-64.

Singh AK, Chaurasiya A, Singh M, Upadhyay SC, Mukherjee R, Khar RK. Exemestane loaded self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS): Development and optimization. AAPS PharmSciTech 2008;9:628–34.

Pandya D, Rana B, Solanki N. Oral bioavailability enhancement of bromocryptine mesylate by self-micro emulsifying drug delivery system (smedds). Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:76-81.

YSR Elnaggar, MA El-Massik, OY Abdallah. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems of tamoxifen citrate: design and optimization. Int J Pharm 2009;380:133–41.

Bourkaib N, Zhou J, Yao J, Fang Z, Mezghrani O. Combination of β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex and self-microemulsifying drug delivery system for photostability and enhanced oral bioavailability of methotrexate: novel technique. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2013;39:918-27.

Khade S, Pore Y. Formulation and evaluation of neusilin® us2 adsorbed amorphous solid self-microemulsifying delivery system of atorvastatin calcium. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:93-100.

Chen H, Chang X, Weng T, Zhao X, Gao Z, Yang Y, et al. A study of microemulsion systems for transdermal delivery of triptolide. J Controlled Release 2004;98:427–36.

Swamy NGN, Rupa V, Abbas Z, Dasankoppa FS. Formulation and evaluation of Nanosuspensions for enhancing the dissolution of poorly soluble mebendazole. Indian Drugs 2010;47:47–54.

Cho HY, Kang JH, Ngo L, Tran P, Lee YB. Preparation and evaluation of solid-self-emulsifying drug delivery system containing paclitaxel for lymphatic delivery. J Nanomater 2016;2016:1-14.

Suvarna V, Pagdhare U, Kadu A, Oza M. Development and characterization of solid self-emulsifying drug delivery system containing nateglinide. Asian J Pharm 2017;11:27-36.

Siriah TM, Puranik PK. Formulation, optimization and evaluation of self-emulsifying immediate release tablet of nebivolol HCl using 32factorial design. Int J Drug Delivery 2018;10:11-8.

Dokania S, Joshi AK. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS)--challenges and road ahead. Drug Delivery 2015;22:675-90.

Meyer K, Zimmermann I. Effect of glidants in binary powder mixtures. Powder Technol 2004;139:40-54.



How to Cite




Original Article(s)