• SIRIPORN KITTIWISUT Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12120 Thailand
  • PAKORN KRAISIT Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12120 Thailand



Nanoparticles, Chitosan, Propranolol, Buccal, Drug delivery system, Ionic gelation


Objective: This study aimed to characterize the physicochemical properties, including pH, zeta potential, and particle size of propranolol-loaded nanoparticles that were incorporated into a buccal transmucosal drug-delivery system.

Methods: An ionotropic gelation technique was used to formulate propranolol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles. Chitosan used as the nanoparticle base, using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a cross-linking agent. The effects on nanoparticle physical properties, including pH, zeta potential, and particle size were examined when various chitosan [0.150-0.300 % (w/v)] and propranolol contents (0-40 mg) were used during the preparation. The effects of using chitosan solutions with different pH values on nanoparticle properties were also determined.

Results: The pH values of all nanoparticles ranged between 4.14–4.55. The zeta potentials of the prepared nanoparticles ranged between 22.6–52.6 mV, with positive charges. The nanoparticle sizes ranged from 107–140 nm, which are within the range of suitable particle sizes for transmucosal preparations.

Conclusion: The pH values, zeta potentials, and particle sizes of the nanoparticle formulations were influenced by the concentrations of chitosan and propranolol and by the pH of the initial chitosan solution. The relationships between nanoparticle properties and all factors primarily depended on the ionic charges of the components, especially chitosan. Our study provides beneficial physicochemical knowledge for the further development of chitosan-based nanoparticles containing propranolol for buccal drug delivery systems.


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