• NIKITA VERMA University Institute of Pharmacy, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University Raipur, Chhattisgarh, 492010 India
  • SWARNLATA SARAF University Institute of Pharmacy, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University Raipur, Chhattisgarh, 492010 India


Objective: The flavonoidal drug Naringenin offers a natural defense against free radical generation due to their antioxidant i.e. free radical scavenging property. The continuation of research work towards the invention of targeting the flavonoidal drug for skin carcinoma. Naringenin is a potent antioxidant, having remarkable reactive oxygen species scavenging potential and abundantly found in citrus fruits.

Methods: The optimization of the formulated mannosylated naringenin-loaded transfersomes (MA-NgTfs) was performed using Box–Behnken statistical design to obtain crucial variable parameters that influence vesicular size, size distribution and surface charge. Therefore keeping both the concepts in mind our objective is to design and optimize the mannosylated naringenin loaded transfersomes (MA-NgTfs) for macropahge targeting. The Box Behnken with 3D surface response design graph was employed to optimize the formulation.

Results: Phospholipids and surfactant ratio played a remarkable role to determine the mean vesicular size and the Zeta potential of the vesicles. The Zeta potential is found in the formulation having a range of-18.01±1.05 to-28.7±1.008 mV represents the good stability of the formulation. The vesicles size range was found in the range of 102.4±1.01 to 263.74±0.63 and range of Entrapment efficiency of nanovesicles was as 72.04±1.53 to 82.04±0.81. In vitro drug release study shows that mannosylated naringenin loaded transfersomes (MA-NgTfs), and marketed formulation dispersion was found 69.31 %, 62.03 %, 58.71 %, and 65.02 % respectively. Ex vivo skin permeation and deposition study shows that the marketed product and pure drug suspension optimized transfersomes through the skin of mice was of flux 6.5±3.07 and the percentage of drug retention was 0.76±1.26. The results gave us strong evidence of cellular uptake bymannose–directed transfersomes via mannose receptor-based endocytosis.

Conclusion: On the basis of findings, the study revealed that the prepared formulation has characteristic potential for targeting and the concept of ligand directed nanocarrier formulation was imparts synergistic effect against UV-induced skin carcinoma. 

Keywords: Naringenin, BBM, Mannosylated Transfersomes, Macrophage targeting, Skin cancer


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