• MOHIT KUMAR School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University Phagwara, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
  • SURAJPAL School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University Phagwara, Jalandhar, Punjab, India



Mastic Gum, Microwave-assisted grafting, Acrylamide, Box Behnken design


Objective: The objective of the present investigation was the synthesis of grafted co-polymer gum mastic using acrylamide as the monomer.

Methods: 3-factor 3-level response surface Box-Behnken design, which requires 15 runs including three replicates of the central run, was used for the synthesis of graft copolymers of mastic gum with acrylamide using ceric ammonium nitrate as the free radical initiator. The critical synthesis and process parameters; CSPP (A = concentration of monomer, B = concentration of initiator and C= Temperature) to generate design space and optimize formulation with an aim to obtain critical quality attributes (CQA, Y1 =% Yield, Y2 =% Grafting, Y3 =% grafting efficiency).

Result: Formulation F14 having a maximum % yield of 75.89% with % grafting of 210% and % grafting efficiency 51.57% was selected as best.

Conclusion: The microwave-assisted grafted mastic gum was prepared successfully and optimized by using Box Behnken design.


Download data is not yet available.


Singh AV, Nath LK. Evaluation of acetylated moth bean starch as a carrier for controlled drug delivery. Int J Biol Macromol 2012;50:362–8.

Matyjaszewski K. Atom transfer radical polymerization: from mechanisms to applications. Isr J Chem 2012;15213:206–20.

Bhosale RR, Gangadharappa HV, Moin A, Gowda DV, Osmani RAM. Grafting technique with special emphasis on natural gums: applications and perspectives in drug delivery. Nat Prod J 2015;5:124-39.

Szwarc M. Living Polymers. Their discovery, characterization, and properties. J Polym Sci 1998;36:9-15.

Setia A, Kumar R. Microwave-assisted synthesis and optimization of Aegle marmelose-g-poly(acrylamide): release kinetic studies. Int J Biol Macromol 2014;65:462-70.

Soppimath KS, Aminabhavi TM, Dave AM, Kumbar SG, Rudzinski WE. Stimulus-Responsive“ Smart” hydrogels as novel drug delivery systems. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2002; 28:957–74.

Chen T, Kumar G, Harris MT, Smith PJ, Payne GF. Enzymatic grafting of hexyloxyphenol onto chitosan to alter surface and rheological properties. Biotechnol Bioeng 2000;70:564-73.

Wenzel A, Yanagishita H, Kitamoto D, Endo A, Haraya K, Nakane T. Effects of preparation condition of photoinduced graft filling-polymerized membranes on pervaporation performance. J Membr Sci 2000;179:69–77.

Yamaki T, Asano M, Maekawa Y, Morita Y, Kubota H, Yoshida M. Radiation grafting of styrene into crosslinked PTEE films and subsequent sulfonation for fuel cell applications. J Macromol Sci Part A: Pure Appl Chem 2003;67:403–7.

Russell KE. Free radical graft polymerization and copolymerization at higher temperatures. Prog Polym Sci 2002;27:1007–38.

Kaur L, Gupta GD. Gum karaya-g-poly(acrylamide): microwave-assisted synthesis, optimization and characterisation. Int J Appl Pharm 2020;12:143-52.

Prashanth KVH, Tharanathan RN. Studies on graft copolymerization of chitosan with synthetic monomers. Carbohydr Polym 2003;54:343–51.

Abbas G, Hanif M, Khan MA. pH-responsive alginate polymeric rafts for controlled drug release by using box behnken response surface design. Des Monomers Polym 2017;20:1-9.

Sharma GN, Kumar CHP, Shrivastava B, Kumar B. Optimization and characterization of chitosan-based nanoparticles containing methylprednisolone using box behnken design for the treatment of crohn’s disease. Int J Appl Pharm 2020;12:12-23.

Xie W, Xu P, Wang W, Liu Q. Preparation and antibacterial activity of a water-soluble chitosan derivative. Carbohydr Polym 2002;50:35–40.

Singh V, Kumar P, Sanghi R. Use of microwave irradiation in the grafting modification of the polysaccharides–a review. Prog Polym Sci 2012;37:340–64.

Malviya R, Kumar P, Kumar S. Modification of polysaccharides: pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications with commercial utility (patents). Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2016;68:929–38.

Kaity S, Isaac J, Kumar PM, Bose A, Wui T, Ghosh A. Microwave-assisted synthesis of acrylamide grafted locust bean gum and its application in drug delivery. Carbohydr Polym 2013; 98:1083–94.

Vijan V, Kaity S, Biswas S, Isaac J, Ghosh A. Microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of acrylamide grafted gellan, application in drug delivery. Carbohydr Polym 2012;90:496–506.

Bruni S, Guglielmi V. Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy identification of archaeological triterpenic resins by the non-separative techniques FTIR and 13 C NMR: the case of pistacia resin (mastic) in comparison with frankincense. Spectrochim Acta Part A 2014;121:613–22.

Pawar YA, Patil SH, Jadhav KR, Baviskar SR. Formulation and evaluation of matrix tablet of venlafaxine hcl by using directly compressible co-processed excipient. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:504-11.

Kaity S, Ghosh A. Facile preparation of acrylamide grafted locust bean gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network microspheres for controlled oral drug delivery. J Drug Delivery Sci Technol 2016;33:1-2.

Salih OS, Nief RA. Effect of natural and synthetic polymers on the properties of candesartan cilexetil matrix tablet prepared by dry granulation. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:161-70.

Vengala P, Vanamala R. Nanocrystal technology as a tool for improving dissolution of poorly soluble drug, lornoxicam. Int J Appl Pharm 2018;10:162-8.

Kumari A, Jegadeeshwari LA, Gandhi NN. Optimization of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from caralluma umbellata. Int J Appl Pharm 2018;10:103-10.

Rao MRP, Gaikwad SR, Shevate PM. Synthesis and characterization of a novel mucoadhesive derivative of psyllium seed polysaccharide. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:166-75.

Tiwari A, Singh V. Microwave-induced synthesis of electrical conducting gum acacia-graft-polyaniline. Carbohydr Polym 2008;74:427-34.



How to Cite

KUMAR, M., & SURAJPAL. (2021). MASTIC-G-POLY (ACRYLAMIDE): MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 13(2), 228–234.



Original Article(s)