IN VITRO ANTIPLATELET AND ANTICOAGULANT ACTIVITY OF INDIGENOUS VEGETABLES FROM SOUTHERN THAILAND
Keywords:Indigenous vegetables, Antiplatelet activity, Anticoagulant activity, Southern Thailand
Objective: Epidemiological studies have indicated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables help reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs).
However, data about the antithrombotic activity of local vegetables is rare. The objective of this study was to evaluate antiplatelet and anticoagulant
activity in indigenous vegetables with high phenolic compounds collected from Southern Thailand.
Methods: Five selected indigenous vegetables were crudely extracted by distilled water and 80% methanol. The extracts were screened for in vitro
antiplatelet and anticoagulant activity at a concentration of 10 μg/μl. The antiplatelet activity was measured by inhibition of platelet adhesion to
collagen and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, while the anticoagulant activity was assessed by the prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial
thromboplastin time (APTT) tests.
Results: Among the selected vegetables, the extracts of mon-pu (Glochidion perakense Hook.f.) and young cashew leaves (Anacardium occidentale L.)
showed high antithrombotic properties. The highest antithrombotic activity was observed in the methanolic extract of mon-pu, which showed
92.79±0.78% of platelet adhesion inhibition, 102.9±1.53% of platelet aggregation inhibition, and a prolonged APTT assay (48.92±0.94 s). The
prolonged APTT but normal PT results suggested that the extract could affect factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII of the intrinsic coagulation pathway.
Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated antiplatelet and anticoagulation properties of indigenous vegetables from Southern Thailand. The multipotential
effects of mon-pu extracts on antithrombosis evidently suggest that mon-pu can be considered as an excellent nutraceutical option in the
prevention of thrombosis-related CVDs caused by different mechanisms.
disease risk profiles. Am Heart J 1991;121:293-8.
2. Hu FB, Willett WC. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart
disease. JAMA 2002;288:2569-78.
3. Salvamani S, Gunasekaran B, Shaharuddin NA, Ahmad SA,
Shukor MY. Antiartherosclerotic effects of plant flavonoids. Biomed
Res Int 2014;2014:480258.
4. Neamsuvan O, Ruangrit T. A survey of herbal weeds that are used
to treat gastrointestinal disorders from southern Thailand: Krabi and
Songkhla provinces. J Ethnopharmacol 2017;196:84-93.
5. Andarwulan N, Kurniasih D, Apriady RA, Rahmat H, Roto AV,
Bolling BW. Polyphenols, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid in
underutilized medicinal vegetables. J Funct Foods 2012;4:339-47.
6. Nanasombat S, Yansodthee K, Jongjaited I. Evaluation of antidiabetic,
antioxidant and other phytochemical properties of Thai fruits, vegetables
and some local food plants. Walailak J Sci Technol 2018;16:856-66.
7. Povichit N, Phrutivorapongkul A, Suttajit M, Chaiyasut C,
Leelapornpisid P. Phenolic content and in vitro inhibitory effects on
oxidation and protein glycation of some Thai medicinal plants. Pak J
Pharm Sci 2010;23:403-8.
8. Cavagnaro PF, Camargo A, Galmarini CR, Simon PW. Effect of cooking
on garlic (Allium sativum L.) antiplatelet activity and thiosulfinates
content. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:1280-8.
9. Ali M, Bordia T, Mustafa T. Effect of raw versus boiled aqueous extract
of garlic and onion on platelet aggregation. Prostaglandins Leukot
Essent Fatty Acids 1999;60:43-7.
10. Concha-Meyer A, Fuentes E, Palomo I. Antiplatelet protocol: Effects
of ingesting a tomato pomace extract on human platelet aggregation.
11. Torres-Urrutia C, Guzman L, Schmeda-Hirschmann G, Moore-
Carrasco R, Alarcon M, Astudillo L, et al. Antiplatelet, anticoagulant,
and fibrinolytic activity in vitro of extracts from selected fruits and
vegetables. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2011;22:197-205.
12. Hawkey C, Howell M. Orally induced fibrinolysis. A critical assessment
of pineapple protease. Thromb Diath Haemorrh 1964;12:382-90.
13. Kongkachuichai R, Charoensiri R, Yakoh K, Kringkasemsee A,
Insung P. Nutrients value and antioxidant content of indigenous
vegetables from Southern Thailand. Food Chem 2015;173:838-46.
14. Panpipat W, Suttirak W, Chaijan M. Free radical scavenging activity
and reducing capacity of five Southern Thai indigenous vegetable
extracts. Walailak J Sci Technol 2010;7:51-60.
15. Araki J, Jona M, Eto H, Aoi N, Kato H, Suga H, et al. Optimized
preparation method of platelet-concentrated plasma and noncoagulating
platelet-derived factor concentrates: Maximization of platelet
concentration and removal of fibrinogen. Tissue Eng Part C Methods
16. Eriksson AC, Whiss PA. Measurement of adhesion of human platelets
in plasma to protein surfaces in microplates. J Pharmacol Toxicol
17. Krause S, Scholz T, Temmler U, Losche W. Monitoring the effects of
platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists with a microtiter plate method
for detection of platelet aggregation. Platelets 2001;12:423-30.
18. Mao WJ, Li HY, Li Y, Zhang HJ, Qi XH, Sun HH, et al. Chemical
characteristic and anticoagulant activity of the sulfated polysaccharide
isolated from Monostroma latissimum (Chlorophyta). Int J Biol
19. Xu BJ, Chang SK. A comparative study on phenolic profiles and
antioxidant activities of legumes as affected by extraction solvents. J
Food Sci 2007;72:S159-66.
20. Ruggeri ZM. Mechanisms initiating platelet thrombus formation.
Thromb Haemost 1997;78:611-6.
21. Wong WT, Ismail M, Imam MU, Zhang YD. Modulation of platelet
functions by crude rice (Oryza sativa) bran policosanol extract. BMC
Complement Altern Med 2016;16:252.
22. Olas B. The multifunctionality of berries toward blood platelets and
the role of berry phenolics in cardiovascular disorders. Platelets
23. Chong MF, Macdonald R, Lovegrove JA. Fruit polyphenols and
CVD risk: A review of human intervention studies. Br J Nutr
24. Chang SS, Lee VS, Tseng YL, Chang KC, Chen KB, Chen YL,
et al. Gallic acid attenuates platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte
aggregation: Involving pathways of Akt and GSK3 beta. Evid Based
Complement Altern 2012;2012:683872.
25. Pignatelli P, Pulcinelli FM, Celestini A, Lenti L, Ghiselli A,
Gazzaniga PP, et al. The flavonoids quercetin and catechin
synergistically inhibit platelet function by antagonizing the intracellular
production of hydrogen peroxide. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:1150-5.
26. Guerrero JA, Lozano ML, Castillo J, Benavente-Garcia O, Vicente V,
Rivera A. Flavonoids inhibit platelet function through binding to the
thromboxane A(2) receptor. J Thromb Haemost 2005;3:369-76.
27. Iman RA, Priya BL, Chitra R, Shalini K, Vasanth J. In vitro antiplatelet
activity guided fractionation of aerial parts of Melothria maderaspatana.
Indian J Pharm Sci 2006;68:668-70.
28. Sukati S, Jarmkom K, Techaoei S, Wisidsri N, Khobjai W. In vitro
anticoagulant and antioxidant activities of prasaplai recipe and Zingiber
cassumunar Roxb. extracts. Int J Appl Pharm 2019;11:26-30.
29. Rehman AA, Riaz A, Asghar MA, Raza ML, Ahmed S, Khan K. In vivo
assessment of anticoagulant and antiplatelet effects of Syzygium cumini
leaves extract in rabbits. BMC Complement Altern Med 2019;19:236.
30. Kuntic V, Filipovic I, Vujic Z. Effects of rutin and hesperidin and their
Al(III) and Cu(II) complexes on in vitro plasma coagulation assays.