• CH. ANIL KUMAR University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Satavahana University, Karimnagar, Telangana, India
  • J. ASHWINI University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Satavahana University, Karimnagar, Telangana, India
  • ARCHANA G. L. University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Satavahana University, Karimnagar, Telangana, India
  • SEPURI VIJAYA LAXMI University College of Technology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • ANIL KUMAR GARIGE Jayamukhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Narsampet, Warrangal, Telangana, India
  • VIJITHA CHANDUPATLA Vaagdevi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bollikunta, Warrangal, Telangana, India
  • M. AKIFUL HAQUE School of Pharmacy, Anurag University, Ghatkesar, Hyderabad, India
  • SHARUK L. KHAN MUPs College of Pharmacy (B Pharm), Degaon, Risod, Washim, Maharashtra, India



Transdermal patch, angina pectoris, solvent-casting method, nitroglycerin


Topical delivery methods have been used since the dawn of time, employed to cure a wide range of ailments and for aesthetic purposes. Transdermal drug delivery has evolved throughout time, with the development of passive and active technologies that have resulted in enhanced distribution, accuracy in drug dosage, and better fulfillment of the requirements of the individual. The search for more powerful pharmaceuticals that can be delivered to the skin through appropriate transdermal technologies will continue to be a focus in the development of drugs for transdermal patches and other forms of delivery. Topical and transdermal distribution has been around for a while, but this review will focus on transdermal patches and how they've evolved. The articles have been searched on different search engines such as Scopus database, Science direct, PubMed, Google scholar, and Bentham science using multiple keywords. An adhesive transdermal patch is applied to the skin and contains medicine that is absorbed into the bloodstream through the skin. It aids in the recovery of an afflicted part of the body. When compared to oral, topical, i.v., and i.m. administration systems, transdermal drug delivery allows a controlled release of the medicine into patients, often by either a porous membrane or by body heat melting small layers of medication embedded in the adhesive. The fundamental drawback of transdermal delivery methods is that the skin is a highly efficient barrier, therefore only tiny molecules can enter the skin and be administered in this manner.


Download data is not yet available.


Pastore MN, Kalia YN, Horstmann M, Roberts MS. Transdermal patches: History, development and pharmacology1. Pastore MN, Kalia YN, Horstmann M, Roberts MS. Transdermal patches: History, development and pharmacology. Br J Pharmacol. 2015;172(9):2179–209.

Pastore MN, Kalia YN, Horstmann M, Roberts MS. Transdermal patches: History, development and pharmacology1. Pastore MN, Kalia YN, Horstmann M, Roberts MS. Transdermal patches: History, development and pharmacology. Br J Pharmacol. 2015;172(9):2179–209.

Al Hanbali OA, Khan HM, Sarfraz M, Arafat M, Ijaz S, Hameed A. Transdermal patches: Design and current approaches to painless drug delivery. Acta Pharmaceutica. 2019;69(2):197-215.

Römer WHP, Kramer SN, Romer WHP. The Sumerians. Their History, Culture, and Character. J Am Orient Soc. 1967;87(4):637.

Raddin JB. The Sumerians: Their History, Culture and Character. Arch Intern Med. 1964;113(2):309.

Grayson AK, Kramer SN. The Sumerians. Their History, Culture, and Character. Am J Archaeol. 1964;68(2):205.

Henshilwood CS, D’Errico F, Van Niekerk KL, Coquinot Y, Jacobs Z, Lauritzen SE, et al. A 100,000-year-old ochre-processing workshop at Blombos Cave, South Africa. Science (80- ).2011;334(6053):219-22.

Limet H, Forbes RJ. Studies in Ancient Technology. J Econ Soc Hist Orient. 1966;9(3):309.

Cooney JD, Lucas A. Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries. Am J Archaeol. 1964;68(1):75.

Tapsoba I, Arbault S, Walter P, Amatore C. Finding out Egyptian Gods’ secret using analytical chemistry: Biomedical properties of Egyptian black makeup revealed by amperometry at single cells. Anal Chem. 2010;82(2):457-60.

Coleman JW. Nitric oxide in immunity and inflammation. Int. Immunopharmacol. 2001;1(8):1397-406.

Kremers E, LaWall CH. Four Thousand Years of Pharmacy: An Outline History of Pharmacy and the Allied Sciences. Am Hist Rev. 1928;33(4):844.

Peet TE, Bryan CP. The Papyrus Ebers. J Egypt Archaeol. 1931;17(1/2):150.

Nederhof M-J. Ebers Papyrus. Toxipedia [Internet]. 2012;1(1927):23–5. Available from:

Popko L. Some notes on papyrus ebers, ancient Egyptian treatments of migraine, and a crocodile on the patient’s head. Bull Hist Med. 2018;92(2):352-67.

Dawson WR, Ebbell B. The Papyrus Ebers; The Greatest Egyptian Medical Document. J Egypt Archaeol. 1938;24(2):250.

King LS. Kremers and Urdang's History of Pharmacy. JAMA. 1964;187(4):309.

Gaskell E. Great Moments in Medicine and Pharmacy: a History of Medicine and Pharmacy in Pictures, by G. A. Bender and R. A. Thom, Detroit, Northwood Institute Press, for Parke, Davis & Co.Med Hist. 1967;11(3):320–320.

Van Staden D, Du Plessis J, Viljoen J. Development of topical/transdermal self-emulsifying drug delivery systems, not as simple as expected. Scientia Pharmaceutica. 2020 Jun;88(2):17.

Lobo S, Sachdeva S, Goswami T. Role of pressure-sensitive adhesives in transdermal drug delivery systems. Ther. Deliv. 2016;7(1):33-48.

Tan HS, Pfister WR. Pressure-sensitive adhesives for transdermal drug delivery systems. Pharmaceut Sci Tech Today.1999;2(2):60-9.

Cole HN, Schreiber N, Sollmann T. Mercurial ointments in the treatment of syphilis: Their absorption as measured by studies on excretion. Arch Derm Syphilol. 1930;21(3):372–93.

Coxe JR. The American Dispensatory (1818). Oxford Univ. 1818;XXX(41):209–10.

Pereira J. The Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics. The Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics. 2014.

A. S. Das absorptions verniogen der haut. Arch Anat Physiol. 1904;28(1):121–65.

Muehlberger CW. Shoe dye poisoning. J Am Med Assoc. 1925;84(26):1987–91.

Prosser White R. Poisoning From Aniline Black on Shoes. The Lancet. 1909;173(4457):349.

Poisoning By Cutaneous Absorption of Aniline. The Lancet. 1902;159(26):463–4.

Greenburg L. Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene. Am J Public Heal Nations Heal. 1948;38(10):1464–1464.

Roberts MS, Anderson RA, Swarbrick J. Permeability of human epidermis to phenolic compounds. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.1977;29(1):677-83.

Mellick GD, Roberts MS. Structure-hepatic disposition relationships for phenolic compounds. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1999;158(1):50–60.

Martin-Bouyer G, Toga M, Lebreton R, Stolley PD, Lockhart J. Outbreak of Accidental Hexachlorophene Poisoning in France. Lancet. 1982;319(8263):91–5.

Malkinson FD, Kirschenbaum MB. Percutaneous Absorption of C14-Labeled Triamcinolone Acetonide. Arch Dermatol. 1963;88(4):427–39.

Wertz PW. Roles of lipids in the permeability barriers of skin and oral mucosa. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021;22(10):5229.

Wile UJ, Elliott JA. Mode of absorption of mercury in the inunction treatment of syphilis: Preliminary report. J Am Med Assoc. 1917;68(14):1024-8.

Cole HN, Gammel JA, Rauschkolb JE, Schreiber N, Sollmann T. Excretion of mercury after intramuscular injection of mercuric bromide, inunction and rectal suppositories. Arch Derm Syphilol. 1926;14(6):683–92.

Zondek B, Shapiro B, Hestrin S. Application of the Millon reaction to the determination of chlorophenols in body fluids and tissues. Biochem J. 1943;37(5):589–91.

Godin B, Touitou E. Transdermal skin delivery: predictions for humans from in vivo, ex vivo and animal models. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.2007;59(11):1152-61.

Brown EW, Scott WO. The absorption of methyl salicylate by the human skin. . J Pharmacol Exp Ther [Internet]. 1934;50(1):32–50.

Gemmell DH, Morrison JC. The release of medicinal substances from topical applications and their passage through the skin. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.1957;9(1):641-56.

Moore CR, Lamar JK, Beck N. Cutaneous absorption of sex hormones. J Am Med Assoc. 1938;111(1):11–4.

Zondek B. Cutaneous Application of Follicular Hormone. Lancet. 1938;231(5985):1107-10.

Macht DI. The absorption of drugs and poisons through the skin and mucous membranes. J Am Med Assoc. 1938;110(6):409–14.

Hadgraft JW, Somers GF. A Method for Studying Percutaneous Absorption in the Rat. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1954;6(1):944–9.

Wild RB, Roberts I. The absorption of mercurials from ointments applied to the skin. Br Med J. 1926;1(3416):1076–9.

Wild RB. Part I.—On the official ointments, with special reference to the substances used as bases. Br Med J. 1911;2(2638):161–2.

Zondek B. Chemotherapeutical Use of Halogenized Phenols as External Disinfectants. Nature. 1942;149(3777):334–5.

Evans ES. A case of nitroglycerin poisoning. J Am Med Assoc. 1912;58(8):550.

Mekrow RT, Cristol SJ, Van Dolah RW. The Reaction of n-Butyl Nitrate with Alkaline Hydrosulfides. J Am Chem Soc. 1953;75(17):4259–65.

Lund F. Percutaneous Nitroglycerin Treatment in Gases of Peripheral Circulatory Disorders, Especially Raynaud’s Disease. Acta Med Scand. 1948;130(206 S):196–206.

Fox MJ, Leslie CL. Treatment of Raynaud’s diseases with nitroglycerine. Wis Med J. 1948;47(9):855–8.

Davis JA, Wiesel BH. The treatment of angina pectoris with a nitroglycerin ointment. Am J Med Sci. 1955;230(3):259–63.

Reichek N, Goldstein RE, Redwood DR, Epstein SE. Sustained effects of nitroglycerin ointment in patients with angina pectoris. Circulation. 1974;50(2):348–52.

Faulkner JM. Nicotine poisoning by absorption through the skin. J Am Med Assoc. 1933;100(21):1664–5.

Maina G, Castagnoli C, Passini V, Crosera M, Adami G, Mauro M, et al. Transdermal nicotine absorption handling e-cigarette refill liquids. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016;74(1):31–3.

Fitzsimons MP. Gynaecomastia in Stilboestrol Workers. Occup Environ Med. 1944;1(4):235–7.

Scarff RW, Smith CP. Proliferative and other lesions of the male breast. With notes on 2 cases of proliferative mastitis in stilbœstrol workers. Br J Surg. 1942;29(116):393–6.

Kanfer I, Shargel L. Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (The Orange Book). In: Generic Drug Product Development. 2020. p. 36–51.

Macmillan FS, Reller HH, Synder FH. The Antiperspirant Action of Topically Applied Anticholinergics. J Invest Dermatol. 1964;43(1):363–77.

Holling HE, Mcardle B, Trotter WR. Prevention of Seasickness By Drugs. Lancet. 1944;243(6282):127–9.

Gay LN, Carliner PE. The prevention and treatment of motion sickness I. Seasickness. Science (80- ).1949;109(2832):359.

Smith PK. Use of hyoscine hydrobromide for the prevention of airsickness in flexible gunnery students. J Aviat Med. 1946;17(1):346.

Putcha L, Cintrón NM, Tsui J, Vanderploeg JM, Kramer WG. Pharmacokinetics and Oral Bioavailability of Scopolamine in Normal Subjects. Pharm Res An Off J Am Assoc Pharm Sci. 1989;6(6):481–5.

Chandrasekaran SK, Michaels AS, Campbell PS, Shaw JE. Scopolamine permeation through human skin in vitro. AIChE J. 1976;22(5):828–32.

Michaels AS, Chandrasekaran SK, Shaw JE. Drug permeation through human skin: Theory and in vitro experimental measurement. AIChE J. 1975;21(5):985–96.

Shaw J, Urquhart J. Programmed, systemic drug delivery by the transdermal route. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 1979;1(1):208–11.

Hoffman AS. The origins and evolution of “controlled” drug delivery systems. J Control Release.2008;132(3):153-63.

Graybiel A. Prevention and treatment of space sickness in shuttle-orbiter missions. Aviat Sp Environ Med. 1979;50(2):171–6.

Price NM, Schmitt LG, McGuire J, Shaw JE, Trobough G. Transdermal scopolamine in the prevention of motion sickness at sea. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981;29(3):414–9.

Maier-Lenz H, Ringwelski L, Windorfer A. Pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a nitroglycerin ointment formulation. Arzneimittel-Forschung/Drug Res. 1980;30(2):320–4.

Sved S, McLean WM, McGilveray IJ. Influence of the method of application on pharmacokinetics of nitroglycerin from ointment in humans. J Pharm Sci. 1981;70(12):1368–9.

Cossum PA, Roberts MS. Stability of nitroglycerin Ointment. J Pharm Sci. 1981;70(7):832-3.

Talley JD, Crawley IS. Transdermal nitrate, penile erection, and spousal headache. Ann. Intern. Med. 1985;103(5):804-.

Dasta JF, Geraets DR. Topical nitroglycerin: a new twist to an old standby. Am Pharm. 1982;NS22(2):29–35.

Banerjee S, Chattopadhyay P, Ghosh A, Datta P, Veer V. Aspect of adhesives in transdermal drug delivery systems. Int J Adhes Adhes. 2014;50(1):70-84.

Kharat R, Bathe RS. A Comprehensive Review on: Transdermal drug delivery systems. Int J Biomed Adv Res. 2016;7(4):147.

Nair AB, Gupta S, Al-Dhubiab BE, Jacob S, Shinu P, Shah J, et al. Effective therapeutic delivery and bioavailability enhancement of pioglitazone using drug in adhesive transdermal patch. Pharmaceutics. 2019;11(7):359.

Pechová V, Gajdziok J, Muselík J, Vetchý D. Development of Orodispersible Films Containing Benzydamine Hydrochloride Using a Modified Solvent Casting Method. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2018;19(6):2509–18.

De Mohac LM, Caruana R, Cavallaro G, Giammona G, Licciardi M. Spray-Drying, Solvent-Casting and Freeze-Drying Techniques: a Comparative Study on their Suitability for the Enhancement of Drug Dissolution Rates. Pharm Res. 2020;37(3):1-1

Uzun G, Aydemir D. Biocomposites from polyhydroxybutyrate and bio-fillers by solvent casting method. Bull Mater Sci. 2017;40(2):383–93.

Prezotti FG, Siedle I, Boni FI, Chorilli M, Müller I, Cury BSF. Mucoadhesive films based on gellan gum/pectin blends as potential platform for buccal drug delivery. Pharm Dev Technol. 2020;25(2):159–67.

Bouamer, Benrekaa, Younes. Structures, Optical and Mechanical Properties of PLA/ZnO SiO2 Al2O3 Composite Elaborated by a Solvent Casting Method. Proceedings. 2019;26(1):18.

Muthukumar S, Ganapathy RS. Formulation and evaluation of hydralazine hydrochloride buccal films by solvent casting method using different polymers for the management of hypertension. Int J Pharm Sci Res [Internet]. 2018;9(8):3328–33.

Wang LF, Rhim JW, Hong SI. Preparation of poly(lactide)/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) blend films using a solvent casting method and their food packaging application. LWT - Food Sci Technol. 2016;68(1):454–61.

Kalia V, Garg T, Rath G, Goyal AK. Development and evaluation of a sublingual film of the antiemetic granisetron hydrochloride. Artif Cells, Nanomedicine Biotechnol. 2016;44(3):842–6.

Govindasamy K, Ramli MH, Pasbakhsh P, Pushpamalar V, Salamatinia B. Chitosan/cellulose/halloysite membranes produced using solvent casting method. Polym Polym Compos. 2015;23(5):325–32.

Tamer MA, Abd-Al Hammid SN, Ahmed B. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of bromocriptine mesylate as fast dissolving oral film. Int J Appl Pharm. 2018;10(1):7–20.

Shobana M. Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Oral Film of Sitagliptin Phosphate by Solvent Casting Method. Pharma Innov J. 2018;2(2):1-18.

Samiullah, Jan SU, Gul R, Jalaludin S, Asmathullah. Formulation and evaluation of transdermal patches of pseudoephedrine HCL. Int J Appl Pharm. 2020;12(3):121–7.

Das A, Ahmed AB. Formulation and evaluation of transdermal patch of indomethacin containing patchouli oil as natural penetration enhancer. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2017;10(11):320–5.

Jafri I, Shoaib MH, Yousuf RI, Ali FR. Effect of permeation enhancers on in vitro release and transdermal delivery of lamotrigine from Eudragit®RS100 polymer matrix-type drug in adhesive patches. Prog Biomater. 2019;8(2):91–100.

Chauhan SB, Naved T, Parvez N. Formulation and development of transdermal drug delivery system of ethinylestradiol and testosterone: In vitro evaluation. Int J Appl Pharm. 2019;11(1):55–60.

Laxman JR, Pallavi A, Vyankatrao YA, Varsha GG, Vyankatrao PM, Nawaj SS. The Pharmaceutical Application of Sulfoxy Amine Chitosan in Design, Development and Evaluation of Transdermal Drug Delivery of Gliclazide. J Pharm Res Int. 2020;32(20):145–61.

Kulkarni S. Formulation and Evaluation of Transdermal Patch for Atomoxetine hydrochloride. J Drug Deliv Ther.2019;9(2):32–5.

Dinanath Gaikwad, Namdeo Jadhav. Terminalia Arjuna Transdermal Matrix Formulation Containing Different Polymer Components. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2019;12(6):266–70.

Yener G, Üner M, Gönüllü Ü, Yildirim S, Kiliç P, Aslan SS, et al. Design of meloxicam and lornoxicam transdermal patches: Preparation, physical characterization, ex vivo and in vivo studies. Chem Pharm Bull. 2010;58(11):1466–73.

Akhlaq M, Arshad MS, Mudassir AM, Hussain A, Kucuk I, Haj-Ahmad R, et al. Formulation and evaluation of anti-rheumatic dexibuprofen transdermal patches: a quality-by-design approach. J Drug Target. 2016;24(7):603–12.

Kumar SS, Rao M. Formulation and Evaluation of Bilayered Felodipine Transdermal Patches: in Vitro and Ex Vivo Characterization. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2021;14(3):106–11.

Castañeda PS, Escobar-Chávez JJ, Aguado AT, Cruz IMR, Melgoza Contreras LM. Design and evaluation of a transdermal patch with Atorvastatin. Farmacia. 2017;65(6):908–16.

Peddapalli H, Ganta RP, Boggula N. Formulation and evaluation of transdermal patches for antianxiety drug. Asian J Pharm. 2018;12(2):127–36.

Lakshmi SS, Srinivasa Rao Y, Asha D, Kumari PVK, Mallikarjun PN. Formulation and evaluation of Rosuvastatin-Calcium drug transdermal patch. Res J Pharm Technol. 2020;13(10):4784–90.

Sachdeva V, Bai Y, Kydonieus A, Banga AK. Formulation and optimization of desogestrel transdermal contraceptive patch using crystallization studies. Int J Pharm. 2013;441(1–2):9–18.

Hamdan L, Husian J. Formulation and evaluation in vitro a matrix type of Ketotifen fumarate transdermal patches for allergic diseases. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2017;10(10):327–33.

Subedi RK, Oh SY, Chun MK, Choi HK. Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery. Arch. Pharm. Res. 2010;33(3):339-51.

Shehata TM, Mohafez OMM, Hanieh HN. Pharmaceutical formulation and biochemical evaluation of atorvastatin transdermal patches. Indian J Pharm Educ Res. 2018;52(1):54–61.

Budhathoki U, Gartoulla MK, Shakya S. Formulation and evaluation of transdermal patches of atenolol. Indones J Pharm. 2016;27(4):196–202.

Ravichandiran V, Manivannan S. Wound healing potential of transdermal patches containing bioactive fraction from the bark of Ficus racemosa. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2015;7(6):326–32.

Hardainiyan S, Kumar K, Nandy BC, Saxena R. Design, Formulation and in Vitro Drug Release From Transdermal Patches Containing Imipramine Hydrochloride As Model Drug. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2017;9(6):220.

Silalahi AA, Sinaga KR, Sumaiyah S. Formulation and evaluation of ketoprofen transdermal matrix patch containing different polymer components. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2018;11(11):316–8.



How to Cite




Review Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)