QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PELARGONIUM GRAVEOLENS L'HER
Objective: The present study investigates the qualitative and quantitative phytoconstituents and bactericidal effect of medicinally important Pelargonium graveolens L' Her leaves extracts.
Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening analyses were determined using standard protocol methods. In addition, antibacterial activities of the P. graveolens leaves extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion method against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
Results: The results revealed that ethanolic extract of P. graveolens was found to be the predominant occurrence of phytochemicals (9/11) which contains flavonoid, phenol, tannins, saponins, reducing sugar, glycosides, terpenoids, anthraquinone, and phlorotannins while starch and steroids were absent. In quantitative estimation of bioactive phytoconstituents showed carbohydrates (74 mg/gdw), protein (41.25 mg/gdw), chlorophyll (2.2Â±0.05 mg/gdw), lipids (0.07 mg/gdw), tannins (135.3 gm/gdw), phenolic compounds (123.75 mg/gdw) and flavonoids (50 mg/gdw) were found to have higher amount in ethanolic extract followed by acetone, methanol and aqueous extract and also showed an inhibitory action on growth of tested bacteria.
Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of the P. graveolens leaves hold promises as a potential source of pharmaceutically important phytochemicals and also have strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia.
Keywords: Phytochemical screening, Primary and secondary metabolites, Antibacterial screening, Pelargonium graveolens
2. Pradeepa M, Kalidas V, Geetha N. An In silico approach for the identification of anti-colon cancer phytocompounds from Avena sativa. L. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2014;5:543â€“52.
3. Wadood A, Ghufran M, Jamal SB, Naeem M, Khan A, Ghaffar R, et al. Phytochemical analysis of medicinal plants occurring in local area of mardan. Biochem Anal Biochem 2013;2:1-4.
4. Linga rao M, Savithramma N. Quantification of primary and secondary metabolites of Svensonia hyderobadensisâ€“a rare medicinal plant. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:519-21.
5. Loizzo MR, Tundis R, Conforti F, Saab AM, Statti GA, Menichini F. Composition and Î±-amylase inhibitory effect of essential oils from Cedrus libani, Fitoterapia. 2007;78:323â€“6.
6. Senthilkumar M. Phytochemical screening of Gloriosa superba L.-from different geographical position. Int J Sci Res Publications 2013;3:1-5.
7. Sagwan S, Rao DV, Sharma RA. Biochemical estimation of primary metabolites from Pongamia Pinnata (L.): an important biodiesel plant. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2010;5:146-9.
8. Arvind J Mungole, Ravi Awati, Alka Chaturvedi, Prakash Zanwar. Preliminary Phytochemical screening of ipomoea obscura (L)-A hepatoprotective medicinal plant, Int J PharmTech Res 2010;2:2307-12.
9. Derwich E, Benziane Z, Boukir A. Chemical composition of leaf essential oil of Juniperus phoenicea and evaluation of its antibacterial activity, Int J Agric Biol 2010;12:199-204.
10. Saraswathi J, Venkatesh K, Baburao N, Hilal MH, Roja Rani A. Phytopharmacological importance of pelargonium species. J Med Plants Res 2011;5:2587â€“98.
11. Saxena G, Laiq-ur-Rahman, Praveen Chandra Verma, Suchitra Banerjee, Sushil Kumar. Field performance of some clones of rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens Lâ€™Her Ex Ait.) for evaluation of their essential oil yield and composition. Ind Crops Prod 2008;27:86â€“90.
12. Arumugam R, Kumar N. Geranium cultivation in Kodaikanal Hills. Indian Perfumer 1979;23:128-30.
13. Lalli JYY, Van Zyl RL, Van Vuuren SF, Viljoen AM. In vitro biological activities of South African pelargonium (Geraniaceae) species. S Afr J Bot 2008;74:153-7.
14. Monika B, MaÅ‚gorzata W, Danuta K, Monika S. Antimicrobial activity of geranium oil against clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Mol 2012;17:10276-91.
15. Naeini AR, Nazeri M, Shokri H. Antifungal activity of Zataria multiflora, Pelargonium graveolens and Cuminum cyminum essential oils towards three species of Malassezia isolated from patients with Pityriasis versicolor. J Med Vet Mycol 2011;21:87-91.
16. Maruyama N, Ishibashi H, Hu W, Morofuji S, Inouye S, Yamaguchi H, et al. Suppression of carrageenan and collagen II-induced inflammation in mice by geranium oil. Mediators Inflammation 2006;53:625-37.
17. Boukhris M, Bouaziz M, Feki I, Jemai HE, Feki A, Sayadi S. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of pelargonium graveolens Lâ€™HÃ©r. in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Lipids Health Dis 2012;11:1-10.
18. Galea C, Hancu G. Antimicrobial and antifungal activity of Pelargonium roseum essential oils. Adv Pharm Bull 2014;4:1-4.
19. Kader G, Nikkon F, Rashid MA, Yeasmin T. Antimicrobial activities of the rhizome extract of Zingiber zerumbet Linn. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2011;1:409-12.
20. Kavit M, Pate BN, Jain BK. Phytochemical analysis of leaf extract of Phyllanthus fraternus. Res J Recent Sci 2013;2:12-5.
21. Ugochukwu SC, Uche IA, Ifeanyi O. Preliminary phytochemical screening of different solvent extracts of stem bark and roots of Dennetia tripetala G. Baker. Asian J Plant Sci Res 2013;3:10-3.
22. Iqbal PJ. Phytochemical screening of certain plant species of Agra city. J Drug Delivery Ther 2012;2:135-8.
23. Agarwal K, Varma R. Studies on antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of selected medicinal plant ocimum gratissimum L. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2014;5:3520-8.
24. Hedge JE, Hofreiter BT, Whistler RL, Be Miller JN. In: Carbohydrate Chemistry. 17th Ed. Academic Press: New York; 1962.
25. Lowery OH, Rosenberg NJ, Farr AL, Randal RJ. Protein measurement with the folin-phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951;193:265-75.
26. Geetha TS, Geetha N. Phytochemical screening, quantitative analysis of primary and secondary metabolites of cymbopogan citratus (DC) stapf. leaves from Kodaikanal hills, Tamilnadu. Int J PharmTech Res 2014;6:521-9.
27. Folch J, Lees M, Standly GHS. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 1957;226:497-509.
28. McDonald S, Prenzer PD, Autolovich M, Robards K. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of olive extracts. Food Chem 2001;73:73-84.
29. Chang C, Yang M, Wen H, Chern J. Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Anal 2002;10:178-82.
30. Schanderl S. In: Methods in food analysis. Acedemic Press: in New York; 1970. p. 70.
31. Singh R, Muftah AMS, Belkheir A. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Mentha piperita L. Arabian J Chem 2015;8:322-8.
32. Tanwer BS, Vijayvergia R. Phytochemical Evaluation and Quantification of Primary metabolites of Alangium salviifolium. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2010;1:1-6.
33. Ambasta SP, Ramachandran K, Kashyapa K, Chand R. Useful plants of India. Publication and information directorate. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. New Delhi; 1986. p. 433â€“7.
34. Sasidharan S, Chen Y, Saravanan D, Sundram KM, Yoga Latha L. Extraction, Isolation and characterization of Bioactive compounds from Plants extracts. Afr J Tradit Complementary Altern Med 2011;8:1-10.
35. Kiruba S, Mahesh M, Nisha SR, Miller Paul Z, Jeeva S. Phytochemical analysis of the flower extracts of Rhododendron arboretum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2011;1:284-6.
36. Arya V, Thakur N, Kashyap CP. Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis of the extracts of Psidium Leaves. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2012;1:1-5.
37. Ghongade R. Phytochemical analysis of citrus karna fruit. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2013;4:(B)1162â€“7.
38. Sasikala A, Linga Rao M, Savithrama N. Quantification of primary and secondary metabolites from leaves and stem bark of Cochlospermum religiosum (L) Alston. Int Res J Pharm 2013;4:228-31.
39. Govaerts R. How many species of seed plants are there. Taxon 2001;50:1085â€“90.
40. Ulhe SK, Narkhede SD. Histological and phytochemical studies on aromatic plant, Hyptis suaveolens (L.) of family Lamiaceaea (MS). India Sci Res Reporte 2013;3:44-8.
41. Geidam YA, Ambali AG, Onyeyli PA. Preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial evaluation of crude aqueous extracts of Psidium guajava L. leaf. J Appl Sci 2007;7:511-4.
42. Sharma BL, Daulat Singh, Santosh Sharma K, Afzal Hashmi, Arjun Singh, Anil Bansal. Studies on some primary metaboliteâ€™s extraction and Quantification in different plant parts of selected Cassia Species. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6:309-14.
43. Lee JH, Park KH, Lee MH, Kim HT, Seo WD, Kim WD, et al. Identification, characterization, and quantification of phenolic compounds in the antioxidant activity-containing fraction from the seeds of Korean perilla (Perilla frutescens) cultivars. Food Chem 2013;136:843-53.
44. Gayathri P, Gayathri Devi S, Sivagami S, Saroja S. Screening and quantitation of phytochemicals and nutritional components of the fruit and bark of Helicteres isora. Hygeia: J Drugs Med 2010;2:57-62.
45. Essiett UA, Edet NI, Bala DN. Phytochemical and physicochemical analysis of the leaves of Laportea aestuans (Linn.) Chew and Laportea ovalifolia (Schumach.) chew (male and female). Asian J Plant Sci Res 2011;1:35-42.
46. Hsouna AB, Hamdi N. Phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils and organic extracts from Pelargonium graveolens growing in Tunisia. Lipids Health Dis 2012;11:167.