Plants used for treatment of diarrhea: an Ayurvedic prospective
Relevance: In developing countries, diarrhoea becomes a major health problem leading to morbidity and mortality in rural communities. In the present article we have tried to enumerate simple and single herbal remedies helpful in curing diarrhea.
Materials and methods: literature survey was conducted with help of several important Ayurvedic text to collect information on plants used for treating diarrhoea.
Results and conclusions: 140 single herbal preparations were reported in the present article. The study has supplied information on many medicinal plants and their method of uses. Such simple preparations may helps to the traditional healers in management of diarrhoea in initial stage. Moreover, these user friendly methodologies may contribute in initiation of advance investigation for discovery of new compounds and formulation from these potential plants.
2. World Health Organization. Integrated global action plan for the prevention and control of pneumonia and diarrhoea (GAPPD) 12 April 2013 âŒ© http://www.who.int/topics/diarrhoea/en/âŒª (last accessed 1.01.15)
3. New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services (NHDHHS). Diarrhoea (Infectious Diarrhoea). Disease handbook for childcare providers. Division of Public Health Services, Communicable Disease Control Section. Revised April, 2009.
âŒ©www.dhhs.nh.gov/dphs/cdcs/documents/diarrhoea.pdf âŒª (accessed 31.12.14). 2009.
4. Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Moore PK. The gastrointestinal tract, Pharmacology, 5th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh. 2003;367â€“379.
5. Baldi F, Bianco MA, Nardone G, Pilotto A, Zamparo E. Focus on acute diarrhoeal disease. World J Gastroenterol 2009;15:3341â€“3348.
6. World Health Organization, Diarrhoea: Why children are still dying and what can be done. 2009. âŒ©http://www.whqlibdoc.who.intâŒª.
7. Gutierrez RMP, Mitchell S, Solis RV. Psidium guajava: A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;117:1â€“27.
8. Saralaya MG, Patel P, Patel M, Roy SP, Patel AN. Antidiarrhoeal activity of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam roots in experimental animal models. Int J Pharm Res 2010; 2(2): 35-39.
9. De Wet H, Nkwanyanaa WN, Van Vuuren SF. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea in northern Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;130:284â€“289.
10. Guerrant RL, Oria R, Bushen OY, Patrick PD, Houpt E, Lima AAM. Global impact of diarrhoeal diseases that are sampled by Traveller: the rest of the Hippopotamus. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2005;4:5524â€“5530.
11. Brunton LL. Agents for Control of Gastric Acidity and Treatment of Peptic Ulcers Goodman Gilmanâ€™s â€˜The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 11th ed. McGaw-Hill, New York, 2008;623â€“652.
12. Suleiman MM, Dzenda T, Sani, CA. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanol stem- bark extract of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 2008;116:125â€“130.
13. Rang HM, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Flower RJ. The gastrointestinal tract. In Rang and Dale's Pharmacology, 6th Ed. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier Limited, 2007. pp. 385â€“396
14. Pasricha PJ. Treatment of disorders of bowel motility and water flux: antiemetics; agents used in biliary and pancreatic disease. In, Brunton LL, Lazo JS, Parker KL, eds. Goodman & Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006, pp. 983-1008.
15. Mims BC, Curry JCE. Constipation, diarrhoea, and irritable bowel syndrome. In: Brown M, Malley J, Pancotti R, Brown RY. (Eds.), Pharmacotherapy Principles and Practice, (Eds.) McGraw-Hill USA, 2008. pp. 307â€“321.
16. WHO. Report of the Second Meeting of Directors of WHO Collaborating Centres for Traditional Medicine. WHO, Geneva, Swiszerland. (Document WHO/TRM/88.1). 1987
17. Jasmine TS, Jeeva S, Febreena GL, Mishra BP, Laloo RC. Wild edible plants of Meghalaya, North-east India. Nat Prod Rad 2007; 6(5): 410-426.
18. Jeeva S. Horticultural potential of wild edible fruits used by the Khasi tribes of Meghalaya. J Hort For 2009; 1(9): 182-192.
19. Patel JD, Patel DK, Shrivastava A, Kumar V. Screening of plant extracts used in traditional antidiarrhoeal medicines against pathogenic Escherichia coli. Sci World 2008;6 (6), 63â€“67
20. Jadavji TA. Caraka Samhita of Agnivesa, Elaborated by Caraka and Drinhbala with the Ayurveda Dipika commentry by Cakrapanidatta. Chawkhambha Vidyabhawan, Varanasi 2011.
21. Sharma PV. Susruta Samhita, with English translation of text and Dalhana commentary along with critical notes. 1st Edition. Chaukhambha Bharathi Academy, Varanasi. 2001.
22. Upadhyaya YN. Madhava Nidan of Madhava. 18th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha sanskrit Sansthan. 1988
23. Shastri HS. Astanga Hridaya of Vagbhata with the commentaries â€˜Sarvangasundara of Arunadatta and Ayurveda Rasayanaâ€™ of Hemadri, Chaukambha Sanskrit Prakashan, Varanasi, Reprint, 1997.
24. Lawrence R. Schiller MD. Secretory diarrhea. Current Gastroenterology Reports 1999;1(5):389-397.
25. Hodges K, Gill R. Infectious diarrhea: Cellular and molecular mechanisms. Gut Microbes. 2010;1(1):4â€“21.
26. Bhava Prakasha, Mishra BS. Bhavaprakash of Bhavamishra, 11th edition, Varanasi: Choukambha Sanskrit Bhawan. 2009.
27. Shastri AD . Bhaishajyaratnavali of Govind Das edited with â€˜Vidyotaniâ€™ hindi commentary. Chaukhambha Sanskrit Samsthan Varanasi.2008
28. Sharangadhara Samhita, with â€œKrisnaâ€ Hindi commentary. 4th Edition. Sri Baidhyanath Ayurveda Bhavana Ltd, Nagpur, 1994.
29. Sharma PV. Dravyaguna vigyanam Chaukhambha Bharathi Academy, Varanasi, 2007.
30. Tripathi ID. Chakradatta of Chakrapanidatta edited with â€˜Vaidyaprabhaâ€™ Hindi commentary. Chawkhambha Sanskrit Bhavana, Varanasi. 2010.
31. Late Brahmasree Vayaskara N. S. Moss editor. Vaidya-Manoramaâ€™ Kottayam: Vaidhyasarathi. 1978.
32. Saxena N. Vangsena Samhita English translation, Chaukambha Sanskrit series office, Varanasi, 2004.
33. Tiwari PV. Vrindamadhava of Vrinda. 1st Edition. Chawkhambha Visvabharati Varanasi. 2007.
34. Pandey J. Harita Samhita, with â€˜Nirmalaâ€™ Hindi commentary, Chawkhambha Visvabharati Varanasi. 2010.
35. Bhatta Mahakavi Shri Krishna Ram, Siddhbhesajmanimala, 3rd edition, Chaukhambha Krishnadas Academy Varanasi.
36. Saxena N. Vaidhya Jeevan of Lolimbraj English translation, Chaukhambha Publications, Varanasi, 2004.
37. Gupta AD. Astanga Samgraha of Vagbhata with Hindi commentary,Vol.II Chaukambha Krishnadas Academy:Varanasi, 2005.
38. Sharma PV, Cikitsakalika of Tisatacharya, commentary by Candrata, 1st Ed, Chaukambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 1987.