1Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Azara, Hatkhowapara, Guwahati-17, 2Depertment of Pharmacology, Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Azara, Hatkhowapara, Guwahati-17
Received: 15 Feb 2017, Revised and Accepted: 10 May 2017
Objective: To determine preliminary phytochemical Screening and evaluation of Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Leaves Clerodendrum infortunatum.
Methods: The ethanolic extract of leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum was prepared and analyzed for phytochemical constituents using standard method and evaluate scientifically the anti-diarrheal effect using leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum by castor oil-inducing method. Animals were divided into four groups. Group-I was treated with distilled water 2 ml/kg body weight. Group-II was treated with loperamide 1 mg/kg body weight, Group-III and Group-IV were treated with ethanolic extract of leaves Clerodendrum infortunatum 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively.
Results: Various phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of sterols, terpenoids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannins, glycoside, saponins, proteins and amino acids. The ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum leaves given by oral route to mice at doses of 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg significantly showed antidiarrheal activity against castor oil induced diarrhea as compared with control group and standard.
Conclusion: The present study concluded that ethanolic extract of leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum contain the high presence of phytochemical components and it showed that the leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum having significant antidiarrheal activity. All doses of the plant extracts showed a significant delay in castor oil-induced diarrhea and this justifies the use of this plant as a herbal remedy against diarrhea.
Keywords: Anti-diarrheal, Clerodendrum infortunatum, Castor oil, Loperamide
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Medicinal herbs as a potential source of therapeutics aids have attained a significant role in health system all over the world for both humans and animals not only in the diseased condition but also as a potential material for maintaining proper health . Diarrhoea is one of the leading causes of mortality in developing countries . Each year there are approximately 4 billion cases of diarrhoea worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), diarrhoea still accounts for 1.6-2.5 million deaths annually and each child in the developing world experiences an average of three episodes of diarrhoea per year. In 1998, diarrhoea was estimated to have killed 2.2 million people, most of whom were under 5 y of age . It is usually a symptom of gastrointestinal infection, which can be caused by a variety of bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms. Infection is spread through contaminated food or drinking-water, or from person to person as a result of poor hygiene . Signs of dehydration often begin with loss of the normal stretchiness of the skin and irritable behaviour. This can progress to decreased urination, loss of skin color, a fast heart rate and a decrease in responsiveness as it becomes more severe. Loose but non-watery stools in babies what are breastfed, however, may be normal . Although a diarrheal disease control programme (DDC) has been launched by the World Health Organization (WHO), diarrhoea is still a big public health challenge in developing countries. In Cameroon, for example, diarrhoea remains the number one killer disease among children under five years, while babies between the ages of 7-12 mo remain susceptible . A drug or dietery fibre forming agents that relieve the symptoms of dirrhea . The most effective antidiarrheal drugs are opioid derivatives, which slow intestinal motility to permit greater time for the absorption of water and electrolytes. Dietery fibre forming agents improve stool consistency, but may not decrease fluid and electrolyte loss. Antidiarrheals are used to relapse loss fluids and salts in acute cases .
The Ethanolic extract of ethanolic extract of leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatu was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening for their presence or absence of active constituents utilising the standard method of analysis .
I) Test for alkaloids
II) Test for sterols
Two tests Salkowski test and Liebermann-Burchard test were performed.
III) Test for terpenoids
IV) Test for carbohydrates
V) Test for flavonoids
A small quantity of the extract is heated with 10 ml of ethyl acetate in boiling water for 3 min. The mixture is filtered and the filtrates are used for the following test.
VI) Test for tannins
A small quantity of the extract is boiled with 5 ml of 45 % solution of ethanol for 5 min. Each of the mixtures is cooled and filtered. The different filtrates were used for the following test:
VII) Test for phenols
VIII) Test for glycosides
IX) Test for saponin
X) Test for proteins and amino acids
The antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum was investigated by Castor oil inducing method . Animals were divided into four groups.
|Group I (Control)||-||Distilled water (2 ml/kg)||--||2 animals|
|GroupII (Standard)||-||Loperamide (1 mg/kg)||--||2 animals|
|Group III (Test)||-||Ethanolic extract of leaves Clerodendrum infortunatum (200 mg/kg)||--||4 animals|
|Group IV (Test)||-||Ethanolic extract of leaves Clerodendrum infortunatum (500 mg/kg)||--||4 animals|
Swiss albino mice aged 8-10 w (20-30 gm) were used for the experimental study. The day before the experiment, animals were fasted for 18 h, but with free access to water. Group-I was treated with distilled water 2 ml/kg body weight. Group-II was treated with loperamide (Standard drug) 1 mg/kg body weight, Group-III and Group-IV were treated with ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively. After 30 min each of these animals were given 0.1 ml of Castor oil by the oral route. Each animal was placed in an individual metabolic cage, the floor was lined by white absorbent papers. It was then observed the consistency of fecal matter and frequency of defecation for 4 h .
Table 1: Phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of leaves Clerodendrum infortunatum
|S. No.||Phytochemical components||Result|
|10||Proteins and amino acids||++|
(++)Strongly Present, (+) Weakly Present, (-) Absent.
Table 2: Effect of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum on Castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice
|Group mg/kg||No. of defecation time interval|
|Control (Distilled water) 2 ml//kg||2|
|C. infortunatum (200 mg/kg)||1|
|C. infortunatum (500 mg/kg)||-|
Table 3: Percentage of inhibition of ethanolic extract of leaves Clerodendrum infortunatum as compare to control
|Group||Treatment/Dose (mg/kg)||Mean defecation in 4 hour||% of inhibition of defecation|
|1||Control (Distilled water) 2 ml//kg||4||-|
|3||C. infortunatum (200 mg/kg)||2||50%|
|4||C. infortunatum (500 mg/kg)||1||75%|
Fig. 1: Graph showing anti-diarrheal activity by castor oil inducing method
The observations made for the phytochemical screening of the crude ethanolic extracts of Clerodendrum infortunatum [EECI] leaves are summarised in table 1.
In the study, it was found that the Ethanolic Extract of Clerodendron infortunatum possess sterols, terpenoids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannins, glycoside, saponins, proteins and amino acids whereas, flavonoids, phenols and was absent.
The antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum [EECI] leaves was performed by using Castor oil inducing method presented in table 2. There was a significant reduction in fecal output and frequency of defecation when the plant extracts of 200 mg/kg of the leaf and 500 mg/kg of the doses were administered orally compared with control and standard drug in mice.
Diarrhoea results from an imbalance between the absorptive and secretory mechanisms in the intestinal tract, followed by excess loss of fluid in the faeces. The ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum leaves given by oral route to mice at doses of 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg significantly showed antidiarrheal activity against castor oil induced diarrhea as compared with control and standard (table 3) and (fig. 1).
Phytochemical screening of the plant extract in the present study revealed the presence of alkaloids, sterols, terpenoid, carbohydrate, tannin, glycoside, saponin, protein, amino acid (table 1). Tannin, glycosides are the compounds occupied in a various plant with such activities continue to be widely used in the treatment of diarrhoea and may act by several mechanisms explain its antidiarrheal action. It has been previously demonstrated that protein tannates make the intestinal mucosa more resistant and hence, reduce secretion and peristaltic movement.
The significant inhibition of the castor oil-induced enteropooling in mice suggests that ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum leaf relief in diarrhoea and also anti-enteropooling effects.
In the present study, various phytochemical tests, as well as antidiarrheal activity, was performed. It showed that the leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum having significant antidiarrheal activity. All doses of the plant extracts showed a significant delay in castor oil-induced diarrhea and this justifies the use of this plant as a herbal remedy against diarrhoea.
Therefore, further studies are needed for the isolation and identification of the active principle responsible for these properties, which can give rise to new drug molecule and can be used for human welfare. Also, the results found can be used as a guideline for further investigation.
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