TOPICAL AND SYSTEMIC DERMAL CARRIERS FOR PSORIASIS
Psoriasis is a non-infectious, dry, inflammatory (autoimmune) skin disorder. Treatment approaches include phototherapy, topical, oral and other systemic drug delivery. However, owing to the side effects and incomplete cure accompanying the oral administration as well as phototherapy, the topical route seemed to be more satisfactory for the medical team. Dermal treatment ensuring percutaneous penetration is now highly recommended in topical indications for psoriatic patients, which can be achieved using pharmaceutical carriers. Several carrier systems loaded with antipsoriatic drugs have demonstrated promising results, with some of them strictly being confined to the skin and others allowing for systemic involvement also. The evolution in this area will present a more useful and safer therapy by minimizing the drugs' degradation and loss, and increasing their bioavailability and effectiveness. Since patients require at least three topical applications for almost a 1-year period to gain health benefit, a reduction in the cost of the treatment will be of real value. A distinction of these carriers is made in the current review, to allow the choice of the most suitable pharmaceutical carrier for psoriatic patients requiring either local and/or systemic involvement.Keywords: Skin, Topical, Novel carriers, Psoriasis
2. Imura T, Sakai H, Yamauchi H, Kaise C, Kozawa K, Yokoyama S, Abe M. Preparation of liposomes containing Ceramide 3 and their membrane characteristics. Colloids Surf B 2001;20:1â€“8.
3. Su YH, Fang JY. Drug delivery and formulations for the topical treatment of psoriasis. Expert Opin Drug Delivery 2008;5:235-49.
4. Pradhan M, Singh D, Singh MR. Novel colloidal carriers for psoriasis: Current issues, mechanistic insight and novel delivery approaches. J Controlled Release 2013;170:380â€“95.
5. Patil P, Bhowmik M, Pandey GK, Joshi A, Dubey B. Design and evaluation of tazarotene loaded liposome gel for the effective treatment of psoriasis and acne. J Biomed Pharm Res 2013;2:19-29.
6. Srisuk P, Thongnopnua P, Raktanonchai U, Kanokpanont S. Physico-chemical characteristics of methotrexate-entrapped oleic acid-containing deformable liposomes for in vitro transepidermal delivery targeting psoriasis treatment. Int J Pharm 2012;427:426â€“34.
7. Motta S, Monti M, Sesana S, Mellesi L, Ghidoni R, Caputo R. Abnormality of water barrier function in psoriasis, role of ceramide fractions. Arch Dermatol 1994;130:452-6.
8. Lau WM, White AW, Heard CM. Topical delivery of a naproxen dithranol co-drug: in vitro skin penetration, Permeation, and Staining. Pharm Res 2010;27:2734-42.
9. Badilli U, Sen T, TarÄ±mcÄ± N. Microparticulate based topical delivery system of clobetasol propionate. AAPS PharmSciTech 2011;12:949-57.
10. Kuchekar AB, Pujari RR, Kuchekar SB, Dhole SN, Mule PM. Psoriasis: a comprehensive review. Int J Pharm Life Sci 2011;2:857-77.
11. Vincent N, Ramya DD, Vehda HB. Progress in psoriasis therapy via novel delivery systems. Dermatol Rep 2014;6:5451.
12. Park SN, Lee MH, Kim SJ, Yu ER. Preparation of quercetin and rutin-loaded ceramide liposomes and drug-releasing effect in the liposome-in-hydrogel complex system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2013;435:361-6.
13. Akhtar N, Pathak K. Cavamax W7 composite ethosomal gel of clotrimazole for improved topical delivery: development and comparison with ethosomal gel. AAPS PharmSciTech 2012;13:344-55.
14. Sahle FF, Metz H, Wohlrab J, Neubert RH. Lecithin-based microemulsions for targeted delivery of ceramide AP into the stratum corneum: formulation, Characterizations, and in vitro release and penetration studies. Pharm Res 2013;30:538-51.
15. Gupta M, Agrawal U, Vyas SP. Nanocarrier-based topical drug delivery for the treatment of skin diseases. Expert Opin Drug Delivery 2012;9:783-804.
16. Groen D, Poole DS, Gooris GS, Bouwstra JA. Investigating the barrier function of lipid skin models with varying compositions. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2011;79:334-42.
17. Suresh PK, Singh P, Saraf S. Novel topical drug carriers as a tool for the treatment of psoriasis: Progress and advances. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2013;7:138-47.
18. Tokudome Y, Saito Y, Sato F, Kikuchi M, Hinokitani T, Goto K. Preparation and characterization of ceramide-based liposomes with high fusion activity and high membrane fluidity. Colloids Surf B 2009;73:92â€“6.
19. Prasanthi D, Lakshmi PK. Vesiclesâ€“mechanism of transdermal permeation: a review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5:18-25.
20. Kumar GP, Rajeshwarrao P. Nonionic surfactant vesicular systems for effective drug deliveryâ€”an overview. Acta Pharm Sin B 2011;1:208â€“19.
21. Nasr M, Mansour S, Mortada ND, Elshamy AA. Vesicular aceclofenac systems: a comparative study between liposomes and niosomes. J Microencapsul 2008;25:499-512.
22. Sinico C, Manconi M, Peppi M, Lai F, Valenti D, Fadda AM. Liposomes as carriers for dermal delivery of tretinoin: in vitro evaluation of drug permeation and vesicleâ€“skin interaction. J Controlled Release 2005;103:123â€“36.
23. Elsayed MM, Abdallah OY, Naggar VF, Khalafallah NM. Lipid vesicles for skin delivery of drugs: reviewing three decades of research. Int J Pharm 2007;332:1â€“16.
24. El Zaafarany GM, Awad GA, Holayel SM, Mortada ND. Role of edge activators and surface charge in developing ultra deformable vesicles with enhanced skin delivery. Int J Pharm 2010;397:164â€“72.
25. Schreier H, Bouwstra J. Liposomes and niosomes as topical drug carriers: dermal and transdermal drug delivery. J Controlled Release 1994;30:1â€“15.
26. Shahiwala A, Misra A. Studies in topical application of niosomally entrapped nimesulide. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2002;5:220-5.
27. Agarwal R, Katare OP, Vyas SP. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of liposomal/niosomal delivery systems for antipsoriatic drug dithranol. Int J Pharm 2001;228:43-52.
28. Agarwal R, Saraswat A, Kaur I, Katare OP, Kumar B. A novel liposomal formulation of dithranol for psoriasis: preliminary results. J Dermatol 2002;29:529-32.
29. Knudsen NÃ˜, RÃ¸nholt S, Salte RD, Jorgensen L, Thormann T, Basse LH, et al. Calcipotriol delivery into the skin with PEGylated liposomes. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2012;81:532-9.
30. Ali MF, Salah M, Rafea M, Saleh N. Liposomal methotrexate hydrogel for treatment of localized psoriasis: preparation, characterization and laser targeting. Med Sci Monit 2008;14: PI66-74.
31. Nagle A, Goyal AK, Kesarla R, Murthy RR. Efficacy study of vesicular gel containing methotrexate and menthol combination on parakeratotic rat skin model. J Liposome Res 2011;21:134-40.
32. Lakshmi PK, Devi GS, Bhaskaran S, Sacchidanand S. Niosomal methotrexate gel in the treatment of localized psoriasis: phase I and phase II studies. Indian J Dermatol Venereol 2007;73:157-61.
33. Abdelbary AA, Abou Ghaly MH. Design and optimization of topical methotrexate loaded niosomes for enhanced management of psoriasis: Application of Box-Behnken design, in-vitro evaluation, and in-vivo skin deposition study. Int J Pharm 2015;485:235-43.
34. Trapasso E, Cosco D, Celia C, Fresta M, Paolino D. Retinoids: new use by innovative drug-delivery systems. Expert Opin Drug Delivery 2009;6:465-83.
35. Umalkar DG, Rajesh KS. Formulation and evaluation of liposomal gel for the treatment of psoriasis. Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2013;4:22â€“32.
36. Mandawgade SD, Patravale VB. Development of SLNs from natural lipids: application to topical delivery of tretinoin. Int J Pharm 2008;363:132â€“8.
37. Joshi M, Patravale V. Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) based gel of celecoxib. Int J Pharm 2008;346:124â€“32.
38. Shahwal VK. Preformulation studies and preparation of dithranol are loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Int J Biomed Res 2012;3:343-50.
39. Dubey A, Prabhu P, Kamath JV. Nanostructured lipid carriers: a novel topical drug delivery system. Int J PharmTech Res 2012;4:705-14.
40. Liu J, Hub W, Chen H, Nib Q, Xu H, Yang X. Isotretinoin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles with skin targeting for topical delivery. Int J Pharm 2007;328:191â€“5.
41. Gambhire MS, Bhalekar MR, Shrivastava B. Investigations in photostability of dithranol incorporated in solid lipid nanoparticles. Pharm Chem J 2012;46:256-61.
42. Sonawane R, Harde H, Katariya M, Agrawal S, Jain S. Solid lipid nanoparticles loaded topical gel containing combination drugs: an approach to offset psoriasis. Expert Opin Drug Delivery 2014;11:1833-47.
43. Fang JY, Fang CL, Liu CH, Su YH. Lipid nanoparticles as vehicles for topical psoralen delivery: solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) versus nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2008;70:633-40.
44. Agrawal Y, Petkar KC, Sawant KK. Development, evaluation and clinical studies of Acitretin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for topical treatment of psoriasis. Int J Pharm 2010;401:93-102.
45. Pople PV, Singh KK. Development and evaluation of colloidal modified nano lipid carrier: application to topical delivery of tacrolimus, Part IIâ€“in vivo assessment, drug targeting, efficacy, and safety in treatment for atopic dermatitis. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2013;84:72-83.
46. Pinto MF, Moura CC, Nunes C, Segundo MA, Costa Lima SA, Reis S. A new topical formulation for psoriasis: Development of methotrexate-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers. Int J Pharm 2014;477:519â€“26.
47. Agrawal YO, Mahajan HS, Surana SJ. Development of methotrexate nanostructured lipid carriers for topical treatment of psoriasis: Optimization, evaluation, and in vitro studies. World Academy Sci Eng Technol Pharmacol Pharm Sci 2015;2:294.
48. Lin YK, Huang ZR, Zhuo RZ, Fang JY. The combination of calcipotriol and methotrexate in nanostructured lipid carriers for topical delivery. Int J Nanomedicine 2010;5:117-28.
49. Shinde G, Rajesh KS, Prajapati N, Murthy RSR. Formulation, development, and characterization of nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) loaded gel for psoriasis. Pharm Lett 2013;5:13-25.
50. Pradhan M, Singh D, Murthy SN, Singh MR. Design, characterization, and skin permeating potential of fluocinolone acetonide loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for topical treatment of psoriasis. Steroids 2015;101:56-63.
51. Nasr M, Mansour S, Mortada ND, El Shamy AA. Lipospheres as carriers for topical delivery of aceclofenac: preparation, characterization and in vivo evaluation. AAPS PharmSciTech 2008;9:154-62.
52. Avramoff A, Khan W, Ezra A, Elgart A, Hoffman A, Domb AJ. Cyclosporin pro-dispersion liposphere formulation. J Controlled Release 2012;160:401â€“6.
53. Abolmaali SS, Tamaddon AM, Fakhr Sadat Farvadi FS, Daneshamuz S, Moghimi H. Pharmaceutical nanoemulsions and their potential topical and transdermal applications. Int J Plasma Sci 2011;7:139-50.
54. Salim N, Basri M, Rahman MB, Abdullah DK, Basri H. Modification of palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsions with hydrocolloid gum for enhanced topical delivery of ibuprofen. Int J Nanomed 2012;7:4739-47.
55. Bernardi DS, Pereira TA, Maciel NR, Bortoloto J, Viera GS, Oliveira GC, et al. Formation and stability of oil-in-water nanoemulsions containing rice bran oil: in vitro and in vivo assessments. J Nanobiotechnol 2011;9:4.
56. Croy SR, Kwon GS. Polymeric micelles for drug delivery. Curr Pharm Des 2006;12:4669-84.
57. Lapteva M, Mondon K, MÃ¶ller M, Gurny R, Kalia YN. Polymeric micelle nanocarriers for the cutaneous delivery of tacrolimus: a targeted approach for the treatment of psoriasis. Mol Pharm 2014;11:2989-3001.
58. Lapteva M, Santer V, Mondon K, Patmanidis I, Chiriano G, Scapozza L, et al. Targeted cutaneous delivery of ciclosporin A using micellar nanocarriers and the possible role of inter-cluster regions as molecular transport pathways. J Controlled Release 2014;196:9-18.
59. Saralidze K, Koole LH, Knetsch LW. Polymeric microspheres for medical applications. Materials 2010;3:3537-64.
60. Rolland A, Wagner N, Chatelus A, Shroot B, Schaefer H. Site-specific drug delivery to pilosebaceous structures using polymeric microspheres. Pharm Res 1993;10:1738-44.
61. Nasr M, Awad GA, Mansour S, Al Shamy A, Mortada ND. A reliable predictive factorial model for entrapment optimization of a sodium bisphosphonate into biodegradable microspheres. J Pharm Sci 2011;100:612-21.
62. Gomes AJ, Luardi CN, Lunardi LO, Pitol DL, Machado AE. Identification of psoralen loaded PLGA microspheres in rat skin by light microscopy. Micron 2008;39:40-4.
63. Kilfoyle BE, Sheihet L, Zhang Z, Laohoo M, Kohn J, Michniak-Kohn BB. Development of paclitaxel-tyro spheres for topical skin treatment. J Controlled Release 2012;163:18-24.
64. Batheja P, Sheihet L, Kohn J, Singer AJ, Michniak-Kohn B. Topical drug delivery by a polymeric nanosphere gel: Formulation optimization and in vitro and in vivo skin distribution studies. J Controlled Release 2011;149:159-67.
65. Nasr M, Abdel-Hamid S. Lipid-based nanocapsules: a multitude of biomedical applications. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2015;16:322-32.
66. Savian AL, Rodrigues D, Weber J, Ribeiro RF, Motta MH, Schaffazick SR, et al. Dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules improve the photostability and reduce the in vitro irritation potential of this drug. Mater Sci Eng C 2015;46:69-76.
67. Cevc G, Blume G. Lipid vesicles penetrate into intact skin owing to the transdermal osmotic gradients and hydration force. Biochim Biophys Acta 1992;1104:226-32.
68. Chaudhary H, Kohli K, Kumar V. Nano-transfersomes as a novel carrier for transdermal delivery. Int J Pharm 2013;454:367â€“80.
69. Cevc G, Schatzlein A, Blume G. Transdermal drug carriers: basic properties, optimization and transfer efficiency in the case of epicutaneously applied peptides. J Controlled Release 1995;36:3-16.
70. Malakar J, Sen SO, Nayak AK, Sen KK. Formulation, optimization and evaluation of transferosomal gel for transdermal insulin delivery. Saudi Pharm J 2012;20:355â€“63.
71. Trotta M, Peira E, Carlotti ME, Gallarate M. Deformable liposomes for dermal administration of methotrexate. Int J Pharm 2004;270:119-25.
72. Bhatia A, Singh B, Wadhwa S, Raza K, Katare OP. Novel phospholipid-based topical formulations of tamoxifen: evaluation for antipsoriatic activity using mouse-tail model. Pharm Dev Technol 2014;19:160-3.
73. Bseiso EA, Nasr M, Sammour OA, Abd El Gawad NA. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents. Indian J Dermatol Venereol 2015;81:457-63.
74. Chourasia MK, Kang L, Chan SY. Nanosized ethosomes are bearing ketoprofen for improved transdermal delivery. Results Pharm Sci 2011;1:60â€“7.
75. Dubey V, Mishra D, Dutta T, Nahar M, Saraf DK, Jain NK. Dermal and transdermal delivery of an anti-psoriatic agent via ethanolic liposomes. J Controlled Release 2007;123:148-54.
76. Raza K, Singh B, Lohan S, Sharma G, Negi P, Yachha Y, et al. Nano-lipoidal carriers of tretinoin with enhanced percutaneous absorption, photostability, biocompatibility and anti-psoriatic activity. Int J Pharm 2013;456:65-72.
77. Zhang YT, Shen LN, Wu ZH, Zhao JH, Feng NP. Comparison of ethosomes and liposomes for skin delivery of psoralen for psoriasis therapy. Int J Pharm 2014;471:449-52.
78. Fang YP, Huang YB, Wu PC, Tsai YH. Topical delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid-encapsulated ethosomes in a hyperproliferative skin animal model using the CLSM technique to evaluate the penetration behavior. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2009;73:391-8.
79. Kumari S, Pathak K. Cavamax W7 composite psoralen ethosomal gel versus cavamax W7 psoralen solid complex gel for topical delivery: a comparative evaluation. Int J Pharm Investig 2013;3:171-82.
80. Bsieso EA, Nasr M, Moftah NH, Sammour OA, Abd El Gawad NA. Could nanovesicles containing a penetration enhancer clinically improve the therapeutic outcome in fungal skin diseases. Nanomedicine (Lond) 2015;10:2017-31.
81. Romero EL, Morilla MJ. Highly deformable and highly fluid vesicles as potential drug delivery systems: theoretical and practical considerations. Int J Nanomed 2013;8:3171-86.
82. Hathout RM, Nasr M. Transdermal delivery of betahistine hydrochloride using microemulsions: physical characterization, biophysical assessment, confocal imaging and permeation studies. Colloids Surf B 2013;110:254-60.
83. Alvarez-Figueroa MJ, Blanco-MÃ©ndez J. Transdermal delivery of methotrexate: iontophoretic delivery from hydrogels and passive delivery from microemulsions. Int J Pharm 2001;215:57â€“65.
84. Sah AK, Jain SK, Pandey RS. Microemulsion based hydrogel formulation of methoxsalen for the effective treatment of psoriasis. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2011;4:140-5.
85. Behera J, Keservani RK, Yadav A, Tripathi M, Chadoker A. Methoxsalen loaded chitosan coated microemulsion for effective treatment of psoriasis. Int J Drug Delivery 2010;2:159-67.
86. Ali MS, Alam S, Imam FI, Siddiqui MR. Topical nanoemulsion of turmeric oil for psoriasis: characterization, ex vivo and in vivo assessment. Int J Drug Discovery Technol 2012;4:184-97.
87. Sharma K, Bedi N. Microemulsion based hydrogel of mycophenolate mofetil for the treatment of psoriasis. Curr Trends Biotechnol Pharm 2014;8:359-71.
88. Ali J, Akhtar N, Sultana Y, Baboota S, Ahuja A. Antipsoriatic microemulsion gel formulations for topical drug delivery of babchi oil (Psoralea corylifolia). Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2008;30:277-85.
89. Nasr M, Najlah M, D'Emanuele A, Elhissi A. PAMAM dendrimers as aerosol drug nanocarriers for pulmonary delivery via nebulization. Int J Pharm 2014;461:242-50.
90. Agrawal U, Mehra NK, Gupta U, Jain NK. Hyperbranched dendritic nanocarriers for topical delivery of dithranol. J Drug Target 2013;21:497-506.
91. Borowska K, WoÅ‚owiec S, GÅ‚owniak K, Sieniawska E, Radej S. Transdermal delivery of 8-methoxypsoralene mediated by polyamidoamine dendrimer G2.5 and G3.5--in vitro and in vivo study. Int J Pharm 2012;436:764-70