ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM MEDICINAL PLANT-A PROMISING SOURCE OF POTENTIAL BIOACTIVE METABOLITES.
Objective: Medicinal plants are gaining worldwide attention owing to the fact that the herbal drugs are cost effective, easily available and with negligible side effects. Medicinal plants harbour endophytic microflora and they are valuable source of Bioprospecting endophytes. Endophytes are the microorganisms that inhabit interior of plant tissues that shows no apparent harm to host. Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants are known as â€œPromising Sourceâ€ of bioactive novel metabolites which has significant role in pharmacology, agriculture and in industries.
Methods: In our present research work, endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves of medicinal plant Cardiospermum halicacabum. The frequency of the presence of endophytic fungi was studied based on seasonal variation. Seven endophytic fungi were isolated, of which two isolates were sporulating and identified based on colony morphology, sporulating structures and taken for further studies. The ethyl acetate extract of the isolates were screened for phytochemical studies and also assayed for invitro antibacterial activity. Further, the fungal isolates were checked for their ability to produce extracellular enzymes by qualitative assay and were used to study the presence of chitosan on their cell wall.
Results: The isolates were also screened for extracellular biosynthesis of Silver nanoparticles for which UV-VIS absorption was recorded. FT-IR analysis was also performed to confirm the presence of various functional groups.
Conclusion: The endophytes from Cardiospermum halicacabum can be a potent natural source of bioactive compounds which can be considered to be prolific resource for drugs and as Bioprotectants. Further investigation will focus on the strain improvement and genomic variation among these isolates.Keywords: Medicinal plants, Endophytic fungi, Bioactive, Phytochemical, Antibacterial, Silver nanoparticles, FT-IR.
2. Sanjana Kaul, Maroof Ahmed, Khalid Zargar, Pooja Sharma, Manoj K Dhar. Prospecting endophytic fungal assemblage of Digitalis lanata Ehrh. (foxglove) as a novel source of digoxin: a cardiac glycoside. Biotechnology 2013;3:335â€“4.
3. Rajagopal K, Kalavathy S, Kokila S, Karthikeyan S, Karthiravan G, Prasad R, Balasubramanian P. Diversity of fungal endophytes in few medicinal herbs of south India. Asian J Exp Biol Sci 2010;1:415-8.
4. Strobel G, B Daisy, U Castillo, J Harper. Natural products from endophytic micro organisms. J Nat Prod 2004;67:257-68.
5. Rekha, Kumari Jyohi, Manju Bala, Vedpriya Arya. Endophytic fungus; a potential source of biologically synthesized nanoparticles. Basic Res J Microbiol 2013;1:1-7.
6. Weber D, Sterner O, Anke T, Gorzalczancy S, MartinoV, Acevedo C. Phomol, a new anti-inflammatory metabolite from an endophyte of the medicinal plant Erythrina crista-galli. J Antibiot 2004;57:559-63.
7. Rezwana khan, Saleem Shahzad, M Iqbal Choudhary, Shakeel A Khan, Aqeel Ahmad. Communities of endophytic fungi in medicinal plant Withania somnifera. Pak J Bot 2010;42:1281-7.
8. Jeyadevi R, Sivasudha T, Rameshkumar A, Dineshkumar L. Anti-arthritic activity of the Indian leafy vegetable Cardiospermum halicacabum in Wistar rats and UPLCâ€“QTOFâ€“MS/MS identification of the putative active phenolic components. Inflamm Res 2012;62:115-26.
9. Srinivas K, Choudhary KA, Rao S, Styaranayana T, Krishna Rao RV. Phytochemical investigation of Cardiospermum haliccabum Linn. Indian J Nat Prod 1998;14:24-7.
10. Maroof Ahmed, Muzaffer Hussain, Manoj K Dhar, Sanjana Kaul. Isolation of microbial endophytes from some ethnomedicinal plants of Jammu and Kashmir. J Nat Prod Plant Resour 2012;2:215-20.
11. Udaya Prakash, NK Indoor. Molds: Isolation and Identification; 2004. p. 52-91.
12. Suryanarayanan TS, G Senthilarasu, V Muruganandam. Endophytic fungi from Cuscuta rejlexa and its host plant. Fungal Diversity 2000;4:117-23.
13. Raaman N. Phytochmeical techniques. New India Publishing Agency; 2006. p. 19-25.
14. Amirita A, P Sindy, J Swetha, NS Vasanthi, KP Kannan. Enumeration of endophytic fungi, from medicinal plants and screening of extracellular enzymes. Wold J Sci Technol 2012;2:13-9.
15. Tanya Susan George, Kulanthai Samy Senthil Guru, Narasinganallur Sankaranarayanan Vasanthi, Kilavan Packiam Kannan. Extraction, purification and characterization of chitosan from endophytic fungi isolated from medicinal plant. World J Sci Technol 2011;1:43-8.
16. Farkhanda Raheman, Shivaji Deshmuk, Avinash Ingle, Aniket Gade, Mahendra Rai. Silver nanoparticles; novel antimicrobial agent synthesized from an endophytic fungus Pestalotia sp. Isolated from leaves of Syzygium cumini. Nano Biomed Eng 2011;3:174-8.
17. Suryanarayanan TS, V Kumaresan, A Johnson. Foliar endophytes from two species of the mangrove Rhizophora. Can J Microbiol 1998;44:1003â€“6.
18. Ananda K, N Pavithra, L Sathish. Antimicribial and enzyme activity of Endophytic fungi isolated from Tulsi. J Pharm Biomed Sci 2012;16:1-6.
19. M Hoï¬€man, SG Mayer, GA Strobel, WM Hess, GW Sovocool, AH Grange, Kelley-Swift EG. Puriï¬cation, identiï¬cation and activity of phomodione, a furandione from endophytic Phoma species. Phytochem 2008;69:1049â€“56.
20. Prabavathy D, Valli Nachiyar C. Study on the antimicrobial activity of Aspergillus sp. isolated from Justicia adathoda. Indian J Sci Technol 2012;5:3317-20.
21. Maria GL, Sridhar KR, NS Raviraj. Antimicrobial and enzyme activity of mangrove endophytic fungi of southwest coast of India. J Agric Technol 2005;1:67-80.
22. Chatterjee S, M Adhya, AK Guha, BP Chatterjee. Chitosan from Mucor rouxii: production and physico-chemical characterization. Process Biochem 2005;40:395-400.
23. Amorium RVS, WM Ledingham, K Fukushima, GM Campos-Takaki. Screening of chitin deacetylase from mucoralean strains (Zygomycetes) and its relationship to cell growth rate. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2005;32:19-23.
24. Shefali Mishra, KS Jagadeesh, PU Krishnaraj, AS Byadagi, AS Vastrad. Synergistic effect of chitosan and pseudomonas sp on the biological control of Tomato leaf curl virus in tomato. Indian J Plant Prot 2014;42:437-47.
25. Sunkar S, C Valli Nachiyar. Endophytic fungi mediated extracellular silver nanoparticles as effective antibacterial agents. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5:95-100.
26. Atef, A Hassan, Mogda, K Mansour, HH Mahmoud. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-Nps) (a model of metals) by Candida albicans and its antifungal activity on some fungal pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans). New York Sci J 2013;6:27-34.
27. Hemath Naveen KS, Gaurav Kumar, Karthik L, Bhaskara Rao KV. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the filamentous fungus Penicillium sp. scholars research library. Arch Appl Sci Res 2010;2:161-7.
28. Sadananda T, S Nirupama, R Chaithra, K Govindappa, M Chandrappa, CP Vinay Raghavendra. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of endophytes of Tabebuia argentea and identification of anticancer agent (Lapachol). J Med Plants Res 2011;5:3643-52.
29. John Coates. Interpretation of infrared spectra; a practical approach in encyclopedia of analytical chemistry. Meyers RA (ED). John wiley and Sons Ltd, Chinchester; 2000. p. 10815-37.