A STUDY ON PHYTOCHEMICALS, FUNCTIONAL GROUPS AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF ALLIUM SATIVUM (GARLIC) CLOVES
Objective: The present study on garlic cloves (Allium sativum) belongs to family Amaryllidaceae has been focused. This is a natural medicinal plant used for disease preventions against all kinds of internal infections. Preliminary screening of phytochemicals has found plenty of secondary metabolites which are present in garlic cloves. Their functional groups and mineral compositions, the potential of trace elements have been evaluated using FTIR and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES).
Methods: The screening of phytochemicals, FTIR and ICPOES. All the methods were performed by standard protocols.
Results: The phytochemical screening of plant extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water revealed the presence of steroids, saponin, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, terpenoids and carbohydrates. The results of the methanolic extract of A. sativum analysis showed rich bioactive compounds. The FTIR spectroscopic studies revealed characteristic peak values from 3500-1000 cm-1 for various functional compounds like hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxylic and organosulfur and aromatic compounds in the garlic methanolic extract. The elements present in the garlic play an important role in the treatment of various diseases described in the traditional medicinal system. The elemental analysis was carried out on garlic methanolic extract using the ICP-OES technique and it showed the order of abundance as K>P>Mg>Ca>Zn>Al that could enhance the curative process of ill health and the potentially toxic elements were not detected.
Conclusion: Thus our data on garlic shows a great importance to understand the pharmacological actions and therapeutic efficacy possessed by majority of active compounds.
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