PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SEEDS OF PUNICA GRANATUM AGAINST STANDARD PATHOGENIC STRAINS
Objective: To estimate the anti-microbial activity of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum seeds (family-Punicaceae) in association with phytochemical analysis.
Methods: The ethanolic extract of the seeds of Punica granatum was prepared and investigate for phytochemical constituents using standard methods. Antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract were carried out against one Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and one Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). The anti-fungal activity of the plant extract was evaluated on Candida albicans. The testing was done by the disc diffusion method. A zone of inhibition of ethanolic extract was compared with that of standard Tetracycline for anti-bacterial activities and Fluconazole for anti-fungal activity.
Results: The result of this study showed a good antibacterial effect of pomegranate juice against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of the fruit may be due to its high content of polyphenols which causes phenolic toxicity by interfering with the sulfhydryl group of the bacterial proteins and high content of tannins which interferes with bacterial membrane stability.Conclusion: The present study concluded that ethanolic extract of the seeds of Punica granatum contains the high existence of phytochemicals. The ethanolic extract of the plant was found to possess promising antimicrobial activity when compared with the standards.
2. Marjorie Murphy Cowan Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999;12:564â€“82.
3. Haefner B. Drugs from the deep: marine natural products as drug candidates. Drug Discovery Today 2003;8:536âˆ’44.
4. Voravuthikunchai SP, Sririrak T, Limsuwan S, Supawita T, Iida T, Honda T. Inhibitory effects of active compounds from Punica granatum pericarp on verocytotoxin production by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. J Health Sci 2005;51:590â€“6.
5. Ender Poyrazoglu, Vural Gokmen, Nevzat ArtÎ¹k, Organic acids and phenolic compounds in pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) grown in turkey. 2002;15:567-75.
6. WC Reygaert. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of Staphylococcus aureus Microbial pathogens and strategies for combating them: science, technology and education; Formatex; 2013.
7. Salyers AA, Gupta A, Wang Y. Human intestinal bacteria as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes. Trends Microbiol 2004;12:412â€“6.
8. Blake DP, Hillman K, Fenlon DR, Low JC. Transfer of antibiotic resistance between commensal and pathogenic members of the enterobacteriaceae under ileal conditions. J Appl Microbiol 2003;95:428â€“36.
9. Lester SC, Del Pilar PM, Wang F, Perez Schael I, Jiang H, Oâ€™Brien TF. The carriage of Escherichia coli resistant to antimicrobial agents by healthy children in Boston, in Caracas, Venezuela, and in Qin Pu China. N Engl J Med 1990;323:285â€“9.
10. Nys S, Okeke IN, Kariuki S, Dinant GJ, Driessen C, Stobberingh EE. Antibiotic resistance of faecal escherichia coli from healthy volunteers from eight developing countries. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004;54:952â€“5.
11. Robert A. Akins an update on antifungal targets and mechanisms of resistance in Candida albicans. Medical Mycol J 2005;43:285-318.
12. Zahra Derakhshan, Margherita Ferrante, Marzieh Tadi, Farnoosh Ansari, Ali Heydari Motahreh, Sadat Hosseini Gea, et al. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ethanolic extract of pomegranate peels, juice and seeds. Food Chem Toxicol 2018;114:108-11.
13. Mannan Hajimahmoodi, Ghazaleh Moghaddam, Ali Mohammad Ranjbar, Hossein Khazani, Naficeh Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza Oveisi, et al. Total phenolic flavonoids tannin content and antioxidant power of some iranian pomegranate flower cultivars (Punica granatum L.). Am J Plant Sci 2013;4:1815-20.
14. Machado TB, Leal CR, Amerl ACF, Santos KRN, Silva MG, Kuster RM. Antimicrobial ellagitannin of Punica granatum fruits. J Brazilian Chem Soc 2002;13:606-10.
15. Silva M, Higino J, Pereira J, Siqueira Jonior J, Pereira M. Antibiotic activity of the extract of Punica granatum Linn over bovine strains of staphylococcus aureus. Rev Bras Farmacogn 2008;18:209-12.
16. Patel R, Patel A, Vaghasiya D, Nagee A. Antimicrobial evaluation of hibiscus rosa-sinensis plant extracts against some pathogenic bacteria. Bull Environ Sci Res 2012;1:14-7.
17. Khan NH, Lee AZY, Goo CZT, Ooi WY. Phytochemical investigation of Punica granatum seeds. Madridge J Pharm Res 2017;1:22-6.
18. Sajjad Ali B, Haq A, Hayat A. Antibacterial activity of Punica granatum peel extract. Mycopath 2011;13:105-11.
19. Al-Zoreky N. Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit peels. Int J Food Microbiol 2009;134:244-8.
20. M Silvan, E Mingo, M Hidalgo, S Pascual-Teresa, AV Carrascosa, AJ Martinez-Rodriguez. Antibacterial activity of a grape seed extract and its fractions against Campylobacter spp. Food Controlled 2013;29:25-31.
21. Scalbert A. Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochemistry 1991;30:3875-83.
22. Rauha JP, Remes S, Heinonen M, Hopia A, Kahkonen M, Kujala T, et al. Antimicrobial effects of Finnish plant extracts containing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. Int J Food Microbiol 2000;56:3-12.