PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF TODDALIA ASIATICA (L.) LAM. RUTACEAE
Keywords:Pharmacognosy, Toddalia asiatica (L)Lam, Physicochemical, microscopic, Florescence analysis
Objective: To characterize macroscopical and microscopical features of the leaf and stem of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. RUTACEAE. Explore and establish the micro-morphology and quality control methods for this plant.
Methods: leaves and stem ofÂ Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. wereÂ collected for Pharmacognostic studies involving macros, microscopic evaluation and physicochemical parameters analysis like Ash value, Moisture content, Fluorescence analysis and phytochemicals.
Results: The leaf even and smooth on the adaxial side and highly undulate and densely hairy on the abaxial side. The midrib is very thick projecting much below the lower side of the leaf. The midrib is slightly revised above the adaxial side. It is thick and semicircular on the abaxial side. It is 950 Âµm thick and 900 Âµm wide. The lateral vein hangs from the abaxial surface of the lamina. It is thick and prominent. There is no distinct differentiation of palisade and spongy mesophyll tissue. The lamina is 100 Âµm thick. In the region of lateral veins, it is 160 Âµm thick. Calcium oxalate crystals are fairly abundant in the secondary xylem parenchyma cells of the stem. Prismatic crystals also sparsly seen in the parenchyma cells outside the gelatinous fibre. The powder was also treated with different chemical reagents and changes in colour were studied in ordinary light and UV light. These fluorescence characters were determined according to the methods of Chase and Pratt. The total moisture content of the Toddalia asiatica was 46%. The total ash content of the whole plant was found 96%, the acid insoluble ash content of the whole plant was found 5%, the water-soluble ash content of the whole plant was found 2%, and the sulphated ash content of the whole plant was found 85%. The extractive values obtained from different solvents were found in the Toddalia asiatica among all the extracts chloroform showed the highest percentage (81%) followed by Ethanol (45%) and Benzene (44%). The distribution of different phytochemical constitutes in ethanol, benzene, chloroform acetone, petroleum ether and water of whole plant powder was evaluated qualitatively. The phytochemical such as carbohydrates, saponins, flavonoid, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, phenols, coumarins, and steroids have been confirmed in the all the above extracts of the selected plant. Moreover, phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoid, cardiac glycosides, courmarins, and steroids are also present in the sample and absence of, anthraquinone, steroid, terpenoid and fixed oil.
Conclusion: The observations confirmed thatÂ Toddalia asiatica obvious Pharmacognostic characteristics, which will be useful towards providing a reliable basis for identification, purity, quality, and classification of the plant. Results shall pave a way in the standardization of the drug.
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