CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF LEPIDIUM SATIVUM-A REVIEW

  • ALI ESMAIL AL-SNAFI Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Thi qar University, Iraq

Abstract

Lepidium sativum contained many bioactive constituents included cardiac glycoside, alkaloids, phenolic, flavonoids, cardiotonic glycosides, coumarins, glucosinolates, carbohydrates, proteins and amino-acids, mucilage, resins, saponins, sterols, tannins, volatile oils, triterpene, sinapic acid and uric acid. The pharmacological investigation revealed that Lepidium sativum possessed antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anticancer, reproductive, gastrointestinal, respiratory, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, diuretic, central nervous, fracture healing and protective effects. The current review discussed the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Lepidium sativum.

Keywords: Constituents, Pharmacology, Lepidium sativum

References

1. Al-Snafi AE. Chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of milfoil (Achillea santolina)-a review. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2013;5:1373-7.
2. Al-Snafi AE. Pharmacological and therapeutic importance of Hibiscus sabdariffa-a review. Int J Pharm Res 2018;10:451-75.
3. Al-Snafi AE. The pharmaceutical importance of Althaea officinalis and Althaea rosea: a review. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2013;5:1387-5.
4. Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacology of Anchusa italica and Anchusa strigosa-a review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:7-10.
5. Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacological importance of Anethum graveolens-a review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:11-13.
6. Al-Snafi AE. Immunological effects of medicinal plants: a review (part 2). Immunol Endocr Metab Agents Med Chem 2016;16:100-21.
7. The plant list, Lepidium sativum. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2338547 [Last accessed on 05 Jul 2019]
8. IT IS report, Lepidium sativum. Available from: https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSNandsearch_value=22978#null. [Last accessed on 05 Jul 2019]
9. U. S. National Plant Germplasm System Lepidium sativum. Available from: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/ taxonomydetail.aspx?21769. [Last accessed on 05 Jul 2019]
10. Wadhwa S, Panwar MS, Agarwal A, Saini N, Patidar LN. A review on pharmacognostical study of Lepidium sativum. Adv Res Pharm Biol 2012;2(IV):316–23.
11. Raval ND, Pandya TN. Pharmacognostic study of Lepidium sativum Linn. Int Quarterly J Res Ayurveda 2011;32:116-9.
12. Brotonegoro S, Wiharti W. Lepidium sativum L. In: van Valkenburg, JLCH and Bunyapraphatsara N. (Eds). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 12: Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands; 2001. p. 334–7.
13. Mukhopadhyay D, Parihar SS, Chauhan JS, Preeti, Joshi SC. Effect of temperature and desiccation on seed viability of Lepidium sativum L. New York Sci J 2010;3:34-6.
14. Datta PK, Diwakar BT, Viswanatha S, Murthy KN, Naidu KA. Safety evaluation studies on garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seeds in Wistar rats. Int J Appl Res Nat Prod 2011;4:37-43.
15. Al-Yahya M, Mossa J, Ageel A, Rafatullah S. Pharmacological and safety evaluation studies on Lepidium sativum L seeds. Phytomedicine 1994;1:155-9.
16. Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra LC. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India; 1986.
17. Ahsan SK, Tarig M, Ageel M, Alyanya MA, Shah AH. Studies on some herbaldrugs used in fracture healing. Int J Crude Drug Res 1989;27:235-9.
18. Sharma S, Agarwal N. Nourishing and healing prowess of garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn). Indian J Nat Prod Res 2011;2:292-7.
19. Baytop T. Türkiye'de Bitkiler ile Tedavi. Nobel Tip Istanbul; 1999. p. 480-5.
20. Adam SIA, Salih SAM, Abdelgadir WS. In vitro antimicrobial assessment of Lepidium sativum L. seeds extracts. Asian J Med Sci 2011;3:261-6.
21. Mathews S, Singhal RS, Kulkarni PR. Some phsiochemical characteristics of Lepidium sativum seeds. Nahrung 1993;37:69-71.
22. Ahmad R, Mujeeb M, Anwar F, Husain A, Ahmad A, Sharma S. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical analysis of Lepidium sativum L seeds. Int Curr Pharm J 2015;4:442-6.
23. Gokavi SS, Malleshi NG, Guo M. Chemical composition of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds and its fractions and use of bran as a functional ingredient. Plant Foods Human Nutr 2004;59:105-11.
24. Singh CS, Paswan VK, Naik B, Reeta. Exploring the potential of fortification by garden cress (Lepidium sativum L) seeds for development of functional foods. Indian J Natl Prod Res 2015;6:167-75.
25. Singh CS, Paswan. The potential of garden cress (Lepidium sativum L) seeds for development of functional foods. Chapter 4. In: Advances in seed biology. Intech; 2017. p. 279-94.
26. Ghante MH, Badole SL, Bodhankar SL. Health benefits of garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn) seed extracts. Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention; 2011. p. 521-5.
27. Chatoui K, Talbaoui A, Aneb M, Bakri Y, Harhar H, Tabyaoui M. Phytochemical screening, the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Lepidium sativum seeds from morocco. J Mater Environ Sci 2016;7:2938-46.
28. Ghalem BR, Ali. Preliminary phytochemical screening of five commercial essential oils. World J Appl Chem 2017;2:145-51.
29. Zia-Ul-Haq M, Ahmad S, Calani L, Mazzeo T, Del Rio D, Pellegrini N, et al. Compositional study and antioxidant potential of Ipomoea hederacea Jacq and Lepidium sativum L seeds. Molecules 2012;17:10306-21.
30. Hussain I, Khattak MU, Riaz Ullah, Muhammad Z, Khan N, Khan FA, et al. Phytochemicals screening and antimicrobial activities of selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2011;5:746-50.
31. Bryan RM, Shailesh NS, Jill KW, Steven FV, Roque LE. Composition and physical properties of cress (Lepidium sativum L) and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L) oils. Indus Crops Prod 2009;30:199-205.
32. Diwakara BT, Duttaa PK, Lokeshb BR, Naidu KA. Bioavailability and metabolism of n-3 fatty acid-rich garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seed oil in albino rats. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 2008;78:123-30.
33. Alshammari GM, Yahya MA, Ahmed SB. Nutritive value of Elrashad (Lepidium sativum L) seeds grown in Saudi Arabia. J Exp Biol Agric Sci 2017;5(Suppl 1):S155-S158.
34. Abdel Karim M, Sufian A, Kamal MS, Inas O. Gc-Ms analysis and antimicrobial activity of fixed oil from Saudi Lepidium sativum (Crusifereae) seeds. Int J Adv Res 2017;5:1662-70.
35. Hussein HM. Analysis of trace heavy metals and volatile chemical compounds of Lepidium sativum using atomic absorption spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometric and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2016;7:2529-55.
36. Nathawat RS, Mishra P, Patni V. Identification and qualitative analysis of ?-sitosterol and some phytoestrogens in in vivo and in vitro samples of Lepidium sativum: a semi-arid bone healing plant. Biochem Pharmacol (Los Angel) 2015;4:5.
37. Kadam D, Palamthodi S, Lele SS. LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS profiling and antioxidant activity of phenolics from L. sativum seed cake. J Food Sci Technol 2018;55:1154-63.
38. Yadav YC, DN Srivastav, AK Seth, V Saini, R Balaraman, TK Ghelani. In vivo antioxidant potential of Lepidium sativum seeds in albino rats using cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Int J Phytomed 2010;2:292-8.
39. Sakran M, Selim Y, Zidan N. A new isoflavonoid from seeds of Lepidium sativum L and its protective effect on hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol in male rats. Molecules 2014;19:15440-15551.
40. Maier UH, Gundlach H, Zenk MH. Seven imidazole alkaloids from Lepidium sativum. Phytochemistry 1998;49:1791-5.
41. Radwan HM, El-Missiry MM, Al-Said WM, Ismail AS, Abdel Shafeek, Seif-El-Nasr MM. Investigation of the glucosinolates of Lepidium sativum growing in Egypt and their biological activity. Res J Medicine Med Sci 2007;2:127-32.
42. Golkar P, Hadian F, Koohi Dehkordi M. Production of a new mucilage compound in Lepidium sativum callus by optimizing in vitro growth conditions. Nat Prod Res 2018;15:1-6.
43. Singh AS, Singh SK. Phytoconstituents estimation of Lepidium sativum L seeds extracts using GC-MS spectroscopy. World J Pharm Res 2018;7:1360-7.
44. Abuelgasim AI, Ali MI, Hassan A. Antimicrobial activities of extracts for some of the medicinal plants. Int J Adv Appl Sci 2015;2:1-5.
45. Abushady HM, El-Shatoury EH, Al-Shimaa SA. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of some selected Egyptian plants. Ann Mechnikov Institute 2016;4:71-95.
46. Bhasin P, Bansal D, Punia A, Sehrawat AR. Antimicrobial activities of Lepidium sativum: medicinal plant used in folklore remedies in India. J Pharm Res 2012;5:1643-5.
47. Mishra N, Mohammed A, Rizvi SI. Efficacy of Lepidium sativum to act as an anti-diabetic agent. Prog Health Sci 2017;17:44-53.
48. Attia ES, Amer AH, Hasanein MA. The hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of garden cress (Lepidium sativum L) seed on alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Nat Prod Res 2017;13:1-5.
49. Shukla AK, Bigoniya P, Srivastava B. The hypoglycemic activity of Lepidium sativum Linn seeds total alkaloid on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Res J Med Plant 2012;6:587-96.
50. Eddouks M, Maghrani M, Zeggwagh NA, Michel JB. Study of the hypoglycaemic activity of Lepidium sativum L aqueous extract in normal and diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;97:391-5.
51. Eddouks M, Maghrani M. Effect of Lepidium sativum L on renal glucose reabsorption and urinary TGF-beta 1 levels in diabetic rats. Phytother Res 2008;22:1-5.
52. Naji NS, Abood FN. Effect of tocopherol extraction of Lepidium sativum seeds in sperm parameters of white male rabbits. J Biol Agric Healthcare 2013;3:43-9.
53. Kamani M, Hosseini ES, Kashani HH, Atlasi MA, Nikzad H. Protective effect of Lepidium sativum seed extract on histopathology and morphology of epididymis in the diabetic rat model. Int J Morphol 2017;35:603-10.
54. Kamani M, Mhabadi JA, Atlasi MA, Seyedi F, Kamani E, Nikzad H. Protective effect of alcoholic extract of garden cress seeds on the histopathological changes of the ventral prostate in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Int J Morphol 2017;35:1178-84.
55. Ibraheem SR, Ibraheem MR, Hashim SS. Effect of Lepidium sativum aqueous crude extract in some fertility parameters in mice. Int J Sci Res 2017;6:260-6.
56. Westphal JP. Lepidium sativum effects on reproduction and visceral organ development in sprague-dawley rats. MS thesis, St. Cloud State University; 2017.
57. Kagathara VG, Shah KK, Anand IS. Effect of methanolic extract of seeds of Lepidium sativum Linn on proceptive and receptive behaviors of female rats. IJPPR Human 2015;4:101-12.
58. Imade OV, Erinfolami WA, Ajadi RA, Abioja MO, Rahman SA, Smith OF, et al. Effects of Lepidium sativum supplementation on growth and gonadotropins secretion in ovariectomized, estrogen-implanted rabbits. Asian Pacific J Rep 2018;7:155-60.
59. Rehman NU, Mehmood MH, Alkharfy KM, Gilani AH. Prokinetic and laxative activities of Lepidium sativum seed extract with species and tissue-selective gut stimulatory actions. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;134:878-83.
60. Manohar D, Lakshman K, Shylaja H, Viswanatha GL, Rajesh, Nandakumar K. Antidiarrheal activity of methanolic extracts of seeds of Lepidium sativum. J Nat Rem 2009;9:197-201.
61. Rehman NU, Mehmood MH, Alkharfy KM, Gilani AH. Studies on antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of Lepidium sativum crude extract in rats. Phytother Res 2012;26:136-41.
62. Gilani AH, Rehman NU, Mehmood MH, Alkharfy KM. Species differences in the antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of Lepidium sativum and insight into underlying mechanisms. Phytother Res 2013;27:1086-94.
63. Masadeh MM, Alkofahi AS, Alzoubi KH, Tumah HN, Bani-Hani K. Anti-Helicobactor pylori activity of some Jordanian medicinal plants. Pharm Biol 2014;52:566-9.
64. Mali RG, Mahajan SG, Mehta AA. Studies on bronchodilatory effect of Lepidium sativum against allergen-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs. Pharmacogn Magazine 2008;4:189-92.
65. Paranjape AN, Mehta A. A study on clinical efficacy of Lepidium sativum seeds in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Iran J Pharmacol Ther 2006;5:55-9.
66. Rehman NU, Khan A, Alkharfy KM, Gilani AH. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Lepidium sativum in airways disorders. J Evidence-Based Complementary Altern Med 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/596524
67. Ahmad A, Jan BL, Raish M, Alkharfy KM, Ahad A, Khan A, et al. Inhibitory effects of Lepidium sativum polysaccharide extracts on TNF-? production in Escherichia coli-stimulated mouse. Biotech 2018;8:286.
68. Diwakar PT, Datta PK, Belur RL, Naidu KA. Modulatory effect of ?-linolenic acid-rich garden cress (Lepidium sativum L) seed oil on inflammatory mediators in adult albino rats. Br J Nutr 2011;106:530-9.
69. Sowjanya KRR, Vishweswar RV, Bushra F, Kapila M, Srilakshmi M. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of ultra soni assisted, methanol extract of Lepidium sativum Linn seeds. Int J Pharm Dev Technol 2013;3:63-5.
70. Ozdemir H, Yaren B, Oto G. Antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of Lepidium sativum L in mice. Eastern J Med 2015;20:131-5.
71. Raval ND, Pandya TN. Clinical trial of Lepidium sativum Linn (Chandrashura) in the management of sandhivata (osteoarthritis). Int Quarterly J Res Ayurveda 2009;30:153-7.
72. Vohora SB, Khan MS. Pharmacological studies on Lepidium sativum linn. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1977;21:118-20.
73. Mali RG, Mahajan SG, Mehta AA. Lepidium sativum (Garden cress): a review of contemporary literature and medicinal properties. Oriental Pharm Exp Med 2007;7:331-5.
74. Maghrani M, Zeggwagh NA, Michel JB, Eddouks M. Antihypertensive effect of Lepidium sativum L. in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 100:193-7.
75. Patel U, Kulkarni M, Undale V, Bhosale A. Evaluation of diuretic activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Lepidium sativum garden cress (Cruciferae) in rats. Trop J Pharm Res 2009;8:215-9.
76. Selek S, Koyuncu I, Caglar HG, Bektas I, Yilmaz MA, Gonel A, et al. The evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer effects of Lepidium sativum subsp spinescens L methanol extract on cancer cells. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2018;64:72-80.
77. Malar J, Chairman K, Singh ARJ, Vanmathi JS, Balasubramanian A, Vasanthi K. Antioxidative activity of different parts of the plant Lepidium sativum Linn. Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 2014;3:95-8.
78. Bhasin P, Bansal D, Yadav OP, Punia A. In vitro antioxidant activity and phytochemical analysis of seed extracts of Lepidium sativum-a medicinal herb. J Biosci Tech 2011;2:410-5.
79. Kassabe PJ, Patil P, Kamble DD, Dandge P. Nutritional, elemental analysis and antioxidant activity of garden cress (Lepidium sativum L) seeds. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:392-5.
80. Aslani E, Naghsh N, Ranjbar M. Cytotoxic effects of hydro-alcoholic extracts of cress (Lepidium sativum)-made from different stages of the plant-on k562 Leukemia cell line. Hormozgan Med J 2014;18:370-8.
81. Indumathy R, Aruna A. Cytotoxic potential of various extracts of Lepidium sativum (Linn)-an in vitro evaluation. Int J Pharmacol Pharm Sci 2015;2:1-5.
82. Ait-Yahia O, Bouzroura SA, Belkebir A, Kaci S, Aouichat AB. Cytotoxic activity of flavonoid extracts from Lepidium sativum (Brassicaceae) seeds and leaves. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2015;7:1231-5.
83. Mahassni SH, Al-Reemi RM. Apoptosis and necrosis of human breast cancer cells by an aqueous extract of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds. Saudi J Biol Sci 2013;20:131-9.
84. Raish M, Ahmad A, Alkharfy KM, Ahamad SR, Mohsin K, Al-Jenoobi FI, et al. Hepatoprotective activity of Lepidium sativum seeds against D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatotoxicity in animal model. BMC Complement Altern Med 2016;16:501.
85. Al-Asmari AK, Athar MT, Al-Shahrani HM, Al-Dakheel SI, Al-Ghamdi MA. Efficacy of Lepidium sativum against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and determination of its bioactive compounds by GC-MS. Toxicol Rep 2015;2:1319-26.
86. Afaf I, Abuelgasim, Nuha HS, Mohammed AH. Hepatoprotective effect of Lepidium sativum against carbon tetrachloride induced damage in rats. Res J Animal Veterinary Sci 2008;3:20-3.
87. Al-Sheddi ES, Farshori NN, Al-Oqail MM, Musarrat J, Al-Khedhairy AA, Siddiqui MA. Protective effect of Lepidium sativum seed extract against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human liver cells (HepG2). Pharm Biol 2016;54:314-21.
88. Shinde N, Jagtap A, Undale V, Kakade S, Kotwal S, Patil R. Protective effect of Lepidium sativum against doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2010;3:42-9.
89. Yadav YC, Srivastav DN, Seth AK, Saini V, Yadav KS. The nephro-pharmacological activity of ethanolic extract Lepidium sativum L seeds in albino rats using cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2010;4:64-8.
90. Halaby MS, Farag MH, Mahmoud SAA. Protective and curative effects of garden cress seeds on acute renal failure in male albino rats. Middle East J Appl 2015;5:573-86.
91. Kassie F, Rabot S, Uhl M, Huber W, Qin HM, Helma C, et al. Chemoprotective effects of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) and its constituents towards 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (Iq)-induced genotoxic effects and colonic preneoplastic lesions. Carcinogenesis 2002;23:1155-61.
92. Shukla A, Chandra SS, Papiya B. Phytochemical and CNS activity of Lepidium sativum Linn seeds total alkaloid. Scholar Res Library 2011;3:226-37.
93. Althnaian T. Influence of dietary supplementation of Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L) on liver histopathology and serum biochemistry in rats fed high cholesterol diet. J Adv Vet Anim Res 2014;1:216-23.
94. Amawi K, Aljamal A. Effect of Lepidium sativum on lipid profiles and blood glucose in rats. J Physiol Pharmacol Adv 2012;2:277-81.
95. Juma AB. The effects of Lepidium sativum seeds on fracture-induced healing in rabbits. Med Gen Med 2007;9:23.
96. Datta PK, Diwakar BT, Viswanatha S, Murthy KN, Naidu KA. Safety evaluation studies on garden cress (Lepidium sativum L) seeds in Wistar rats. Int J Appl Res Nat Prod 2011;4:37-43.
97. Adam SEI. Effects of various levels of dietary Lepidium sativum L seeds in rats. Am J Chin Med 1999;27:397-405.
98. Bafeel SO, Ali SS. The potential liver toxicity of Lepidium sativum seeds in albino rats. Plant Physiol 2009;4:1250-8.
99. Al-Sheddi ES, Farshori NN, Al-Oqail MM, Musarrat J, Al-Khedhairy AA, Siddiqui MA. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by alcoholic extract and oil of Lepidium sativum seeds in human liver cell line HepG2. Afr J Biotechnol 2013;12:3854-63.
100. Mahassni SH, Khudauardi ER. A pilot study: the effects of an aqueous extract of Lepidium sativum seeds on levels of immune cells and body and organs weights in mice. J Ayurvedic Herbal Med 2017;3:27-32.
Statistics
53 Views | 50 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
AL-SNAFI, A. E. “CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF LEPIDIUM SATIVUM-A REVIEW”. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 11, no. 6, Nov. 2019, pp. 1-10, doi:10.22159/ijcpr.2019v11i6.36338.
Section
Review Article(s)