ROLE OF MICROSPHERES IN NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: PREPARATION METHODS AND APPLICATIONS
Microsphere based drug delivery system has gained substantial attention in the modern era. Microspheres are normally free-flowing powders that can be made with both natural and synthetic polymers. The sizes of the microspheres ranges from 1 to 1000 µm. Microspheres are matrix systems in which the drug is uniformly dispersed, dissolved or suspended. Microspheres contain solid or liquid drug dissolved or dispersed in a matrix system. The current review provides an inclusive outline of up to date and novel developments on formations of microspheres which have been reported to increase bioavailability, improves stability, enhances biological half-life and reduces the toxicity of the drug. Microsphere provides efficient delivery of various proteins and peptide molecules. There are different types of microspheres such as bio adhesive microsphere, magnetic microsphere, floating microsphere, and polymeric microspheres. Diverse kinds of methods are used in the formulation of microsphere e. g. Simple emulsion-based method, Double emulsion-based method, Interfacial deposition technique, Interfacial polymerization technique, Phase separation method, and Spray drying. Microspheres deliver the drug in a controlled manner through different routes like oral, topical, naso-pulmonary and gene therapy. The Polymeric based microspheres are model carriers for numerous controlled delivery applications owing to their capacity to encapsulate a diversity of drugs, bio-compatibility, high bio-availability and continuous drug release character. Therefore, by developing newer techniques, it can give more therapeutic effects and improves the safety of drugs. The formation of microspheres has been reported to increase bioavailability, improves stability, enhances biological half-life and reduces the toxicity of the drug.
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