EVALUATION OF ACUTE AND SUB-ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY OF CLINACANTHUS NUTANS LEAVES EXTRACT IN MICE
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of ethanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans leaves in Swiss mice.
Methods: Acute oral toxicity study was performed as per OECD-423 guidelines. Sub-acute oral toxicity study was performed as per OECD-407 guidelines. The extract was dissolved in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide and administered orally, while the control group received only the vehicle.
Results: The acute oral toxicity test on mice showed that this extract was well tolerated up to LD50 5000 mg/kg body weight/day oral dosage level and non-toxic to mice under the present experimental conditions. The sub-acute toxicity study was carried out on mice with the oral dosage of the extract from 100 mg/kg–500 mg/kg body weight/day and 5000 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 d. The results showed that this extract did not induce death or adverse effects in activity, feed consumption or body weight gain. There were not significant changes in heamotological and biochemical parameters between control and experiment groups.
Conclusion: Thus, Clinacanthus nutans leaf has a very low toxicity value.
2. Png XW, Akowuah GA, Chin JH. Acute oral toxicity study of Clinacanthus nutans in mice. IJPSR 2012;3:4202-5.
3. Pannangpetch P, Laupattarakasem P, Kukongviriyapan V, Kukongviriyapan U, Kongyingyoes B, Aromdee C. Antioxidant activity and protective effect against oxidative hemolysis of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f) lindau. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 2007;29:1-9.
4. Wanikiat P, Pathong A, Sujayanon P, Yoosook C, Rossi AG, Reutrakul V. The anti-inflammatory effects and the inhibition of neutrophil responsiveness by Barleria lupulina and clinacanthusnutans extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;116:234-44.
5. Sakdarat S, Shuyprom A, Pientong C, Ekalaksananan T, Thongchai S. Bioactive constituents from the leaves of clinacanthus nutans lindau. Bioorganic Med Chem 2009;17:1857-60.
6. Sittiso S, Ekalaksananan T, Pientong C, Sakdarat S, Charoensri Nand Kongyingyoes B. Effects of compounds from Clinacanthus nutans on dengue virus type 2 infection. Srinagarind Med J 2010;25:272-5.
7. Yong YK, Tan JJ, Teh SS, Mah SH, EE GCL, Chiong HS, et al. Clinacanthus nutans extracts are antioxidant with antiproliferative affect on cultured human cancer cell lines. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;1-8. DOI:10.1155/2013/462751
8. Arullappan S, Rajamanickam P, Thevar N, Kodimani CC. In vitro screening of cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceae) leaf extracts. Trop J Pharm Res 2014;13:1455-61.
9. Barle E, Looser R, Erne M, Bechter R. The value of acute toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals for estimation of human response. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2012;62:412–8.
10. Zakaria ZA, Rahim MHA, Mohtarrudin N, Kadir AA, Cheema MS, Ahmad Z, et al. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans in mice. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2016;13:210-22.
11. OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals. Acute oral toxicity–acute toxic class method, OECD; 2001. p. 423.
12. OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals. Repeated dose 28 d oral toxicity study in rodents, OECD; 2008. p. 407.
13. El J, Israili ZH. Acute and chronic toxicological studies of Ajuga iva in experimental animals. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;91:43–50.
14. Amresh G, Nath P, Venkateswara C. Toxicological screening of traditional medicine laghupatha (Cissampelos pareira) in experimental animals. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;116:454–60.
15. Saheed S, Oladipipoa AE, Abdulazeez AA, Olarewajua SA, Ismailaa NO, Emmanuel IA, et al. Toxicological evaluations of Stigma maydis (corn silk) aqueous extract on hematological and lipid parameters in wistar rats. Toxicol Rep 2015;2:638-44.
16. Xiu WP, Gabriel AA, Jin HC. Evaluation of the sub-acute oral toxic effect of methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans leaves in rats. J Acute Disease 2013;2:29-32.
17. Malini, Vanithakumari. Rat toxicity studies with ?-sitosterol. J Ethnopharmacol 1990;28:221-34.
18. Farsi E, Esmailli K, Shafaei A, Moradi KP, Al Hindi B, Khadeer Ahamed MB, et al. Mutagenicity and preclinical safety assessment of the aqueous extract of Clinacanthus nutans leaves. Drug Chem Toxicol 2016;545:1–13.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.