PHYTOCHEMICALS IN THE TREATMENT OF ARTHRITIS: CURRENT KNOWLEDGE
Keywords:Phytochemicals, Anti-arthritic agents, Rheumatoid arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Chronic inflammation, Autoimmune disease
The objective of the present review is to evaluate the therapeutic potential of phytochemicals against arthritis, which is asymptomatic disorder of chronic joint inflammation followed by swelling and pain. Here, we discussed about the anti-arthritic activity of many phytomolecules such as Norisoboldine, Berberine, Triptolide, Hesperidin Hesperidin, Madecassocide, Hydroxy napthoquinone, Ginsenoside, Cryptotanshinone, Kirenol, Thymoquinone, Chlorogenic acid, Curcumin, Bromelain, Andrographolide and Allicin. These compounds are able to control inflammatory responses, proinflammatory cytokines, osteoclast differentiation and to prevent bone erosion in the joints. In this article, we reviewed anti-arthritic activities of phytichemicals from 2011-2019, using various scientific websites like PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct etc. Till date clinical trials conducted with anti-arthritic phytomolecules are very less. Hence, more clinical trials are needed to bring plant molecules as safe and effective anti-arthritic drugs in the market, either alone or in combination with other anti-arthritic agents.
2. Das N, Bhattacharya A, Mandal SK, Debnath U, Dinda B, Mandal SC, et al. Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) R. Br. root derived phyto-steroids defends inflammation and algesia by pulling down the pro-inflammatory and nociceptive pain mediators: an in vitro and in vivo appraisal. Steroids 2018;139:18-27.
3. Das S, Mandal SK. Current developments on natural anti-inflammatory medicines. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:61-5.
4. Mandal SK. A review on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Pharmawave 2013;6:12-22.
5. Mandal, SK, Ray SM. Synthesis and biological evaluation of (5,6-dialkoxy-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl)acetic acid esters as anti-inflammatory agents with much reduced gastrointestinal ulcerogenic potential. Indo Am J Pharm Res 2014;4:3796-807.
6. Mandal SK, Ray SM. Synthesis and biological evaluation of (6-chloro-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl)acetic acid esters as anti-inflammatory agents devoid of ulcerogenic potential at the tested dose level. Indo Am J Pharm Res 2014;4:343-50.
7. Mandal SK, Pati K, Bose A, Dey S, De A, Bose S, et al. Various ester prodrugs of NSAIDs with low ulcerogenic activity. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2019;54:45-9.
8. Al-Nahain A, Jahan R, Rahmatullah M. Zingiber officinale: a potential plant against rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/159089
9. Ravalli S, Szychlinska MA, Leonardi RM, Musumeci G. Recently highlighted nutraceuticals for preventive management of osteoarthritis. World J Orthop 2018;9:255.
10. Khadim MJ, Kaizal AF, Hameed IH. Medicinal plants used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a review. Int J Pharm Clin Res 2016;8:1685-94.
11. Venkatesha SH, Astry B, Nanjundaiah SM, Kim HR, Rajaiah R, Yang Y, et al. Control of autoimmune arthritis by herbal extracts and their bioactive components. Asian J Pharm Sci 2016;11:301-7.
12. Castrogiovanni P, Trovato FM, Loreto C, Nsir H, Szychlinska MA, Musumeci G. Nutraceutical supplements in the management and prevention of osteoarthritis. Int J Mol Sci 2016;17:2042.
13. Venkatesha SH, Astry B, Nanjundaiah SM, Kim HR, Rajaiah R, Yang Y, et al. Control of autoimmune arthritis by herbal extracts and their bioactive components. Asian J Pharm Sci 2016;11:301-7.
14. Yue M, Xia Y, Shi C, Guan C, Li Y, Liu R, et al. Berberine ameliorates collagen?induced arthritis in rats by suppressing Th17 cell responses via inducing cortistatin in the gut. FEBS J 2017;284:2786-801.
15. Yue J, Xu J, Li H, Wang J, Zheng N, Yao H, et al. THU0078 berberine ameliorates bone erosions in collagen-induced arthritis rat models via suppressing the expression of il-17a. Ann Rheum Dis 2018;77(Suppl 2):262.2-262.
16. Wang XH, Jiang SM, Sun QW. Effects of berberine on human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Exp Biol Med 2011;236:859-66.
17. Fan D, Guo Q, Shen J, Zheng K, Lu C, Zhang G, et al. The effect of triptolide in rheumatoid arthritis: from basic research towards clinical translation. Int J Mol Sci 2018;19:376.
18. Ruan Q, Xu Y, Xu R, Wang J, Hua Y, Wang M, et al. The adverse effects of triptolide on the reproductive system of caenorhabditis elegans: oogenesis impairment and decreased oocyte quality. Int J Mol Sci 2017;18:464.
19. Zhang L, Wang T, Li Q, Huang J, Xu H, Li J, et al. Fabrication of novel vesicles of triptolide for antirheumatoid activity with reduced toxicity in vitro and in vivo. Int J Nanomed 2016;11:2663.
20. Wei ZF, Lv Q, Xia Y, Yue MF, Shi C, Xia YF, et al. Norisoboldine, an anti-arthritis alkaloid isolated from radix linderae, attenuates osteoclast differentiation and inflammatory bone erosion in an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent manner. Int J Biol Sci 2015;11:1113.
21. Wei ZF, Lv Q, Xia Y, Yue MF, Shi C, Xia YF, et al. Norisoboldine, an anti-arthritis alkaloid isolated from radix linderae, attenuates osteoclast differentiation and inflammatory bone erosion in an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent manner. Int J Biol Sci 2015;11:1113.
22. Duan C, Guo JM, Dai Y, Xia YF. The absorption enhancement of norisoboldine in the duodenum of adjuvant?induced arthritis rats involves the impairment of P?glycoprotein. Biopharm Drug Dispos 2017;38:75-83.
23. Luo Y, Wei Z, Chou G, Wang Z, Xia Y, Dai Y. Norisoboldine induces apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes from adjuvant-induced arthritis rats. Int Iimmunopharmacol 2014;20:110-6.
24. Fu Z, Chen Z, Xie Q, Lei H, Xiang S. Hesperidin protects against IL 1? induced inflammation in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes. Exp Ther Med 2018;16:3721-7.
25. Wrubel KM, Riha PD, Maldonado MA, McCollum D, Gonzalez Lima F. The brain metabolic enhancer methylene blue improves discrimination learning in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2007;86:712-7.
26. Wei Guang YU, Yong SH, Jian Zhong WU, Yan Bing GA, ZHANG LX. Madecassoside impedes invasion of rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocyte from adjuvant arthritis rats via inhibition of NF-?B-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression. Chinese J Nat Med 2018;16:330-8.
27. Wang T, Wei Z, Dou Y, Yang Y, Leng D, Kong L, et al. Intestinal interleukin-10 mobilization as a contributor to the anti-arthritis effect of orally administered madecassoside: a unique action mode of saponin compounds with poor bioavailability. Biochem Pharmacol 2015;94:30-8.
28. Lu X, Zeng R, Lin J, Hu J, Rong Z, Xu W, et al. Pharmacological basis for use of madecassoside in gouty arthritis: anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperuricemic, and NLRP3 inhibition. Immunopharm Immunot 2019;41:277-84.
29. Wang T, Qiao H, Zhai Z, Tang T. Plumbagin ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis by regulating Treg/Th17 cell imbalances and suppressing osteoclastogenesis. Osteoarthr Cartil 2017;25:S417.
30. Fan H, Yang M, Che X, Zhang Z, Xu H, Liu K, et al. Activity study of a hydroxynaphthoquinone fraction from Arnebia euchroma in experimental arthritis. Fitoterapia 2012;83:1226-37.
31. Peres RS, Santos GB, Cecilio NT, Jabor VA, Niehues M, Torres BG, et al. Lapachol, a compound targeting pyrimidine metabolism, ameliorates experimental autoimmune arthritis. Arthritis Res Thera 2017;19:47.
32. Chen J, Wang Q, Wu H, Liu K, Wu Y, Chang Y, et al. The ginsenoside metabolite compound K exerts its anti-inflammatory activity by downregulating memory B cell in adjuvant-induced arthritis. Pharm Biol 2016;54:1280-8.
33. Chen J, Wei W. Anti-arthritic effect and underlying mechanism of ginsenoside metabolite compound k. Clin Anti Inflamm Anti Allergy Drug 2015;2:47-51.
34. Zheng FL, Chang Y, Jia XY, Huang M, Wei W. Effects and mechanisms of cryptotanshinone on rats with adjuvant arthritis. Chinese Med J 2011;124:4293-8.
35. Wang Y, Wang S, Li Y, Jiang J, Zhou C, Li C, et al. Therapeutic effect of Cryptotanshinone on collagen-induced arthritis in rats via inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway. Transl Res 2015;165:704-16.
36. Yu Q, Wu J, Li Q, Jin L, Qu Y, Liang B, et al. Kirenol inhibit the function and inflammation of fibro-blast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis in vitro and in vivo. Front Immunol 2019;10:1304.
37. Lu Y, Xiao J, Wu ZW, Wang ZM, Hu J, Fu HZ, et al. Kirenol exerts a potent anti-arthritic effect in collagen-induced arthritis by modifying the T cells balance. Phytomedicine 2012;19:882-9.
38. Lu Y, Xiao J, Wu Z, Wang Z, Fu H, Chen Y, et al. Effects of kirenol on bovine type II collagen-induced rat lymphocytes in vivo and in vitro. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2012;32:1-6.
39. Faisal R, Ahmad N, Fahed YS, Chiragh S. Anti-arthritic effect of thymoquinone in comparison with methotrexate on pristane induced arthritis in female sprague dawley rats. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2018;30:3-7.
40. Faisal R, Shinwari L, Jehangir T. Comparison of the therapeutic effects of thymoquinone and methotrexate on renal injury in pristane induced arthritis in rats. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2015;25:597-601.
41. Arjumand S, Shahzad M, Shabbir A, Yousaf MZ. Thymoquinone attenuates rheumatoid arthritis by downregulating TLR2, TLR4, TNF-?, IL-1, and NF?B expression levels. Biomed Pharmacother 2019;111:958-63.
42. Fu X, Lyu X, Liu H, Zhong D, Xu Z, He F, et al. Chlorogenic acid inhibits BAFF expression in collagen-induced arthritis and human synoviocyte MH7A cells by modulating the activation of the NF-?B signaling pathway. J Immunol Res 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8042097
43. Chen WP, Tang JL, Bao JP, Hu PF, Shi ZL, Wu LD. Anti-arthritic effects of chlorogenic acid in interleukin-1?-induced rabbit chondrocytes and a rabbit osteoarthritis model. Int Immunopharmacol 2011;11:23-8.
44. Chauhan PS, Satti NK, Sharma P, Sharma VK, Suri KA, Bani S. Differential effects of chlorogenic acid on various immunological parameters relevant to rheumatoid arthritis. Phytother Res 2012;26:1156-65.
45. Zheng Z, Sun Y, Liu Z, Zhang M, Li C, Cai H. The effect of curcumin and its nanoformulation on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Drug Des Dev Ther 2015;9:4931.
46. Zahidah AF, Faizah O, Aqilah KN, Anna KT. Curcumin as an anti-arthritic agent in collagen-induced arthritic sprague-dawley rats. Sains Malays 2012;41:591-5.
47. Sumeet G, Rachna K, Samrat C, Ipshita C, Vikas J, Manu S. Anti inflammatory and anti arthritic activity of different milk based formulation of curcumin in rat model. Curr Drug Delivery 2018;15:205-14.
48. Mehwish M, Kanchan B. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of pineapple juice in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis models in rats. Int J Med Health Sci 2015;4:70-6.
49. Kargutkar S, Brijesh S. Anti-rheumatic activity of ananas comosus fruit peel extract in a complete freund’s adjuvant rat model. Pharm Biol 2016;54:2616-22.
50. Akhtar N, Haqqi TM. Current nutraceuticals in the management of osteoarthritis: a review. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis 2012;4:181-207.
51. Hidalgo MA, Hancke JL, Bertoglio JC, Burgos RA. Andrographolide a new potential drug for the long term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis disease. Hampshire, UK: InTech; 2013.
52. Li F, Li H, Luo S, Ran Y, Xie X, Wang Y, et al. Evaluation of the effect of andrographolide and methotrexate combined therapy in complete Freund?s adjuvant induced arthritis with reduced hepatotoxicity. Biomed Pharmacother 2018;106:637-45.
53. Gupta S, Mishra KP, Singh SB, Ganju L. Inhibitory effects of andrographolide on activated macrophages and adjuvant-induced arthritis. Inflammopharmacology 2018;26:447-56.
54. Li ZZ, Tan JP, Wang LL, Li QH. Andrographolide benefits rheumatoid arthritis via inhibiting MAPK pathways. Inflamm 2017;40:1599-605.
55. Mandal SK, Das A, Dey S, Sahoo U, Bose S, Bose A, et al. Bioactivities of allicin and related organosulfur compounds from garlic: overview of the literature since 2010. Egypt J Chem 2019;62:1-11.
56. Rajagopala PL, Dhilnaa KK, Sajith Kumarb PN, Jeril J. Herbs in inflammation-a review. Int J Ayurvedic Herb Med 2013;3:1289–307.
57. Jayanthi MK, Naidu SV. Antioxidant and antiarthritic activity of allicin in animal models. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2015;6:1150-5.
58. Lin W, Hai Tao P, Bing W, Yang L, Kai F, Wei Feng H. Allicin reduces IL-1?-induced inflammatory cytokines via attenuating the NF-?B and MMP3 activation in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes model. Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2016:9;10320-26.
59. Gu X, Wu H, Fu P. Allicin attenuates inflammation and suppresses HLA-B27 protein expression in ankylosing spondylitis mice. Biomed Res Int 2013:1-6. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/171573