THE POTENTIAL OF REMDESIVIR AGAINST SARS COV 2: A REVIEW

  • VINOD B. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, St. Joseph’s College of Pharmacy
  • AMALA BABU Dharmagiri College Campus, Cherthala, Kerala 688524, India
  • FEMY MARIA Dharmagiri College Campus, Cherthala, Kerala 688524, India
  • SNEHA ANTONY Dharmagiri College Campus, Cherthala, Kerala 688524, India

Abstract

Covid 19, the pandemic originated in the Chinese city of Wuhan, had the entire world conquered. The structure and transmission of the causative organism, Coronavirus is well studied. Remdesivir, the product of Gilead pharmaceuticals, was effective against many viral infections, including Ebola and SARS. It comes under the category of nucleoside prodrug and has given promising results in the early trials against SARS COV 19. In depth, research is taking place at a rapid pace, so that Remdesivir will be available to the therapeutic community as an effective remedy for the pandemic caused by SARS COV2. If this meets success, the darkest era in the modern history of mankind may become a memory in the near future.

Keywords: Covid, Remdesivir, Nucleoside, Protide, Virion, Viral replication

References

1. Zhu H, Wei L, Niu P, The novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. Glob Health Res Policy 2020;5:6.
2. Lai CC, Shih TP, Ko WC, Tang HJ, Hsueh PR. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): the epidemic and the challenges. Int J Antimicrobial Agents 2020;55:105924.
3. WHO. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Situtation report; 2019.
4. Perlman S, Netland J. Coronaviruses post-SARS: update on replication and pathogenesis. Natural Revelutions Microbiol 2009;7:439-50.
5. Pal M, Berhanu G, Desalegn C, Kandi V. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020;55:105924.
6. Gao QY, Chen YX, Fang JY. Novel coronavirus infection and gastrointestinal tract. J Digestive Diseases 2019;21:125-6.
7. Yang Y, Peng F, Wang R. The deadly coronaviruses: the 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China. J Autoimmunity 2020;109:102434.
8. Yi Y, Lagniton PNP, Ye S, Li E, Xu RH. COVID-19 what has been learned and to be learned about the novel coronavirus disease. Int J Biol Sci 2020;16:1753-66.
9. World Health Organization. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/330987 [Last accessed on 30 Mar 2020]
10. World Health Organization. Covid 19, coronavirus epidemic has a natural origin. Science. Available from: https:// apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/330987 [Last accessed on 30 Mar 2020].
11. Guan W, Ni Z, Hu Y. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. New England J Med 2020;382:1708-20.
12. Lima KM, Oliveira CM. Information about the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Radiologia Brasileira 2020;53:V-VI.
13. Guzik TJ, Mohiddin SA, Dimarco A, Patel V, Savvatis K, Marelli Berg FM. et al. COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system: implications for risk assessment, diagnosis, and treatment options. Cardiovascular Res 2020;116:1666–87.
14. Aihua J, Benyong Y, Wei H, Dandan F, Bin Xiu, Lianchun L, et al. Clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Beijing. Biosafety Health 2020;2:104-11.
15. Hofmann H, Pohlman S. Cellular entry of SARS coronavirus. Trends Microbiol 2004;12:466-72.
16. Fehr AR, Perlman S. Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis. Methods Mol Biol 2015;1282:1-23.
17. Malik YA. Properties of coronavirus and SARS COV-2. Malaysian J Pathol 2020;42:3–11.
18. Ortega JT, Serrano ML, Pujol FH, Rangel HR. Role of changes in SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the interaction with the human ACE2 receptor: an in silico analysis. Excli J 2020;19:410-7.
19. Narayanan K, Maeda A, Maeda J, Makino S. Characterization of the coronavirus M protein and nucleocapsid interaction in infected cells. J Virol 2000;74:8127-34.
20. Schoeman D, Fielding BC. Coronavirus envelope protein: current knowledge. Virol J 2019;16:69.
21. Poltronieri P, Sun B, Mallardo M. RNA Viruses: RNA roles in pathogenesis, coreplication and viral load. Curr Genomics 2015;16:327-35.
22. Li L., Li H, Pauza C. Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions. Cellular Res 2005;15:923–34.
23. Venkataraman S, Prasad BV, Selvarajan R. RNA dependent RNA polymerases: Insights from structure, function and evolution. Viruses 2018;10:76.
24. Smertina E, Urakova N, Strive T, Frese M. Calcivirus RNA dependent RNA polymerases: evolution strucutre, protein dynamics and function. Frontiers Microbiol 2019;10,1280.
25. Eastman RT, Roth JS, Brimacombe KR. Remdesivir: a review of its discovery and development leading to emergency use authorization for the treatment of covid-19. ACS Central Sci 2020;6:672-83.
26. Liu C, Zhou Q, Li Y, Garner LV, Watkins SP, Carter LJ, et al. Research and development on therapeutic agents and vaccines for COVID-19 and related human coronavirus diseases. ACS Central Sci 2020;6:315-31.
27. Popov D. Treatment of covid-19 infection. A rationale for current and future pharmacological approach. EC Pulmonol Respiratory Med 2020;9:38-58.
28. National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Database. Available from: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ compound/Remdesivir [Last accessed on 27 Jul 2020]
29. Naser F, Al-Tannak, Ladislav N, Alhunayan A. Remdesivir-bringing hope for covid-19 treatment. Sci Pharm 2020;88:29.
30. Pruijssers AJ, Denison MR. Nucleoside analogues for the treatment of coronavirus infections. Curr Opinion Virol 2019;35:57-62.
31. Kadioglu O, Saeed M, Johannes Greten H, Efferth T. Identification of novel compounds against three targets of SARS CoV-2 coronavirus by combined virtual screening and supervised machine learning. [Preprint]. Bull World Health Organisation 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.20.255943
32. Wanchao Y, Chunyou M, Xiagong L, Dan Dan S, Quingya S, Haixia S. Structural basis for inhibition of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir Science 2020;368:1499-504.
33. Saha A, Sharma AR, Bhattacharya M, Sharma G, Lee SS, Chakraborty C. Probable molecular mechanism of remdesivir for the treatment of covid-19: need to know more archives. Med Res 2020;S0188-440930699-8. DOI:10.1016/j. arcmed.2020.05.001.
34. Rahman MM, Saha T, Islam KJ, Suman RH, Biswas S, Rahat EU, et al. Virtual screening, molecular dynamics and structure–activity relationship studies to identify potent approved drugs for covid-19 treatment. J Biomolecular Structure Dynamics 2020. DOI:10.1080/07391102.2020.1794974.
35. Gordon CJ, Tchesnokov EP, Woolner E, Perry JK, Feng JY, Porter DP, et al. Remdesivir is a direct-acting antiviral that inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with high potency. J Biol Chem 2020;295:6785-97.
36. Shannon A, Le NT, Selisko B. Remdesivir and SARS-CoV-2: structural requirements at both nsp12 RdRp and nsp14 exonuclease active-sites. Antiviral Res 2020;178:104793.
37. Pokhrel R, Chapagain R, Liberles JS, Potential RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors as prospective therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2. J Med Microbiol 2020;69:864-73.
38. Dustin S, Hui HC, Doerffler E, Clarke MO, Chun K, Zhang L, et al. Discovery and synthesis of a phosphoramidite prodrug of a pyrrolo[2,1-f][triazin-4-amino] adenine c-nucleoside (GS-5734) for the treatment of ebola and emerging viruses. J Med Chem 2017;60:1648–61.
39. Bugert JJ, Hucke F, Zanetta P. Antivirals in medical biodefense. Virus Genes 2020;56:150–67.
40. JC Alvarez, Moine P, Eting I, Annane D, Larabi IA. Quantification of plasma remdesivir and its metabolite GS-441524 using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Application to a covid-19 treated patient. Clin Chem Laboratary Med 2020;58:1461-68.
41. Wang Y, Zhou F, Zhang D. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of intravenous remdesivir in adult patients with severe covid-19: study protocol for a phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Trials 2020;21:422.
42. Amirian ES, Levy S. Current knowledge about the antivirals remdesivir (GS-5734) and GS-441524 as therapeutic options for coronaviruses. One Health 2020;9. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100128.
43. Meagan L Adamsick, Ronak G Gandhi, Monique R Bidell, Ramy H Elshaboury, Roby P Bhattacharyya, Arthur Y Kim, et al. Remdesivir in patients with acute or chronic kidney disease and COVID-19. J Asian Soc Neurol 2020;31:1384-6.
44. Zeitlinger M, Koch B, Bruggemann R, De Cock P, Felton T, Hites M, et al. PK/PD of Anti-infectives study group (EPASG) of the European society of clinical microbiology, infectious diseases (ESCMID) Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics of antiviral agents used to treat SARS-CoV-2 and their potential interaction with drugs and other supportive measures: a comprehensive review by the PK/PD of anti-infectives study group of the european society of antimicrobial agents. Clinical Pharmacokinetics; 2020. p. 1–22.
Statistics
35 Views | 26 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
B., V., A. BABU, F. MARIA, and S. ANTONY. “THE POTENTIAL OF REMDESIVIR AGAINST SARS COV 2: A REVIEW”. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 12, no. 6, Nov. 2020, pp. 20-23, doi:10.22159/ijcpr.2020v12i6.40298.
Section
Review Article(s)