• MENAKURU SREYA REDDY Department of Ophthalmology, Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  • DIVYA N. Department of Ophthalmology, Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  • PANIMALAR A. VEERAMANI Department of Ophthalmology, Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  • BINDU BHASKARAN Department of Ophthalmology, Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India


Objective: It is a retrospective study to evaluate the effect of myopia on primary open-angle glaucoma by classifying the eyes into NMG (non-myopic glaucoma), HMG (highly myopic glaucoma) And MMG (mild to moderate myopic glaucoma).

Methods: The study was performed on 120 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma who were medically treated. Any participant who had surgery done was excluded from the study. The relation between glaucoma and different myopia and progression were assessed on the basis of age, gender, risk factors.

Results: Out of the 120 cases assessed, 46 [38 percent] were female and 74 [62 percent] were males. On the basis of age there were 9 cases between 31-40 y, 30 cases between the ages 41-50, 40 cases between 51-60, 32 cases between 61-70 and 9 cases between 71-80, on the basis of myopia 59 [49 percent] were NMG 47 [39 percent] were MMG and 14 [12 percent] were HMG. On the basis of risk factors,12 of them had Diabetes Mellitus, 7 had Hypertension, 7 had a history of steroid use, 3 had a history of migraines and 6 of them had a family history of glaucoma. In the observed one year period 73 percent if the cases were not progressive while 27 percent were progressive. In this study, it has been observed that the males are more commonly affected and the age group with the most cases was the 51 to 60 age group. The majority of the cases showed no risk factors though Diabetes Mellitus is the most common. The progression of the disease is seen more frequently in cases associated with Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension. In MMG 12 out of the 47 cases were progressive and in NMG 15 out of the 59 cases were progressive.

Conclusion: Though high myopia is important in the pathogenesis of glaucoma there was no evidence that high myopia increases the progression of the disease of the 14 cases, only 5 were progressive.

Keywords: Myopia, Primary open-angle glaucoma, NMG, HMG, MMG, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension


1. Loyo Berrios NI, Blustein JN. Primary open glaucoma and myopia: a narrative review. WMJ 2007;106:85–9, 95.
2. Seddon JM, Schwartz B, Flowerdew G. Case-control study of ocular hypertension. Arch Ophthalmol 1983;101:891–4.
3. David R, Zangwill LM, Tessler Z, Yassur Y. The correlation between intraocular pressure and refractive status. Arch Ophthalmol 1985;103:1812–5.
4. Abdalla MI, Hamdi M. Applanation ocular tension in myopia and emmetropia. Br J Ophthalmol 1970;54:122–5.
5. Quinn GE, Berlin JA, Young TL. Association of intraocular pressure and myopia in children. Ophthalmology 1995;102:180–5.
6. Tomlinson A, Phillips CI. Applanation tension and axial length of the eyeball. Br J Ophthalmol 1970;54:548–53.
7. Lotufo D, Ritch R, Szmyd L Jr, Burris JE. Juvenile glaucoma, race, and refraction. JAMA 1989;261:249–52.
8. Bonomi L, Mecca E, Massa F. Intraocular pressure in myopic anisometropia. Int Ophthalmol 1982;5:145–8.
9. Leighton DA, Tomlinson A. Ocular tension and axial length of the eyeball in open-angle glaucoma and low tension glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol 1973;57:499–502.
10. Doshi A, Kreidl KO, Lombardi L. Nonprogressive glaucomatous cupping and visual #eld abnormalities in young Chinese males. Ophthalmology 2007;114:472–9.
11. Sakata R, Aihara M, Murata H. Contributing factors for progression of visual #eld loss in normal-tension glaucoma patients with medical treatment. J Glaucoma 2013;22:250–4.
12. Araie M, Shirato S, Yamazaki Y. Risk factors for progression of normal-tension glaucoma under ?-blocker monotherapy. Acta Ophthalmol 2012;90:337–43.
13. Bell GR. Biomechanical considerations of high myopia: part I--physiological characteristics. J Am Optom Assoc 1993;64:332–8.
14. Saw SM, Gazzard G, Shih Yen EC. Myopia and associated pathological complications. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2005;25:381–91.
15. Kimura Y, Hangai M, Morooka S, Retinal nerve #ber layer defects in highly myopic eyes with early glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012;53:6472–8.
16. Mitchell P, Smith W, Chey T, Healey PR. Open-angle glaucoma and diabetes: the blue mountains eye study, Australia. Ophthalmology 1997;104:712–8.
17. Wang JJ, Mitchell P, Smith W. Is there an association between migraine headache and open-angle glaucoma? Findings from the blue mountains eye study. Ophthalmology 1997;104:1714–9.
18. Cumming RG, Mitchell P, Leeder SR. Use of inhaled corticosteroids and the risk of cataracts. N Engl J Med 1997;337:8–14.
19. Chang RT. Myopia and glaucoma. Int Ophthalmol Clin 2011;51:53–63.
20. Perera SA, Wong TY, Tay WT, Foster PJ, Saw SM, Aung T. Refractive error, axial dimensions, and primary open-angle glaucoma: the singapore malay eye study. Arch Ophthalmol 2010;128:900–5.
21. Kim TW, Kim M, Weinreb RN. Optic disc change with incipient myopia of childhood. Ophthalmology 2012;119:21–6.
23 Views | 34 Downloads
How to Cite
REDDY, M. S., D. N., P. A. VEERAMANI, and B. BHASKARAN. “EFFECT OF MYOPIA ON PRIMARY OPEN ANGLE GLAUCOMA”. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 12, no. 6, Nov. 2020, pp. 103-9, doi:10.22159/ijcpr.2020v12i6.40303.
Original Article(s)