EVALUATION OF MATERNAL AND NEONATAL IGG AND IGM SARS-COV-2 ANTIBODIES, TRANSFER RATIOS OF ANTIBODIES VIA PLACENTA, IMMUNE RESPONSE IN NEONATES BY IGG AND IGA SARS-COV-2 ANTIBODIES DETECTION
Keywords:SARS-CoV-2, Antibodies transmission, Maternal, Neonatal, COVID-19, Transplacental, Breastmilk, IgG, IgM, IgA
Objective: To study SARS-CoV-2 viral load in maternal and neonatal bodily fluids, Passage of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody through placenta and breastmilk, and incidence of fetoplacental infection.
Methods: The data were gathered from five databases and included a review of research articles published between 2020 and 2021.
- Google Scholar
The following terms were used in the search: 1. Clinical symptoms of the mother, 2. The ratio of negative to positive RT-PCR test results in infants, 3. Ratios of normal to aberrant IgG and IgM, 4. Antibody Placental Transfer, 5. Time period for maternal immunization to produce effective antibodies, 6. Neonatal Immune Response, 7. Antibodies are transferred through breast milk after moms have been immunised.
Results: Several prospective and retrospective studies conducted in Wuhan, Philadelphia, Florida and Massachusetts consisted of seropositive as well as seronegative pregnant women. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in the sera of the mother and correlated with the antibodies detected in the neonatal blood. Significant transfer of IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies through placenta and breast milk was observed; that is, positive correlation was found between SARS-CoV-2 IgG concentrations in cord and maternal sera (r = 0.886; P < .001). Not only passively, but mothers infected during the peripartum period protect the newborn by actively stimulating and training the neonate system via breastmilk immune complexes.
Conclusion: We here highlight novel insights arising from recent research endeavours on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from a mother to an infant.
Zeng H, Xu C, Fan J. Antibodies in infants born to mothers with covid-19 pneumonia. JAMA. 2020;323(18):1848-9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.4861. PMID 32215589.
Flannery DD, Gouma S, Dhudasia MB. Assessment of maternal and neonatal cord blood SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and placental transfer ratios. JAMA Pediatr. 2021;175(6):594-600. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.0038/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/2775945. PMID 33512440.
Edlow AG, Li JZ, Collier AY. Assessment of maternal and neonatal SARS-CoV-2 viral load, transplacental antibody transfer, and placental pathology in pregnancies during the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(12):e2030455. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.30455. PMID 33351086.
Conti MG, Terreri S, Piano Mortari E, Albano C, Natale F, Boscarino G. Immune response of neonates born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(11):e2132563. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.32563/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2785791. PMID 34730817.
Valcarce V, Stafford LS, Neu J, Cacho N, Parker L, Mueller M. Detection of SARS-CoV-2-Specific IgA in the human milk of covid-19 vaccinated lactating health care workers. Breastfeed Med. 2021 Dec;16(12):1004-9. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2021.0122. PMID 34427487.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 DHARTI BHAGAT, SEFALI PATEL, MANOJ DIKKATWAR, RADHIKA BINDU
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.