EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES ON ROOT OF CARMONA RETUSA (VAHL) MASAM
Objective: The evaluation of antimicrobial activity was carried to study the effect of root extract of Carmona retusa (Vahl.) Masam.
Methods: The antimicrobial studies were carried out by using the cup plate method and the MIC was also determined. The microbial typed cultures namely Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Candida albicans were used.
Results: The root extracts of both chloroform and alcohol showed promising activity against Bacillus subtilis (26 mm), Bacillus cereus and Candida albicans (24 mm), Pseudomonas putida and Staphylococcus aureus (20 mm) and Escherichia coli (18 mm).
Conclusion: The study revealed that the antimicrobial activity of alcohol extract is comparatively higher than the chloroform extract.Keywords: Antimicrobial, Carmona retusa.
2. Heinrich, Gibbons. Ethnopharmacology in drug discovery, an analysis of its role and potential contribution. J Pharm Pharmacol 2001;53:425-32.
3. Krishna Kumar A, Katakam A. Credit for conservation. Frontline 2002;19:9-22.
4. Agarwal RB, Rangari VD, Singhania SS. Antibacterial and antifungal activity studies of oil of Strobilanthus ixiocephala. Indian Drugs 2002;39(1):36-8.
5. Marjorie Murphy Cowan. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999;12(4):564-82.
6. Dassanayake MD. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon. Oxford & IBH Publishing Company Private Limited: New Delhi; 1991;7:3-6.
7. Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of indian medicinal plants. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi; 1980. p. 104.
8. Murugesa Mudaliyar KS. Gunapadam. Part-I. Chennai, Tamil Nadu Siddha Medical Board; 1956. p. 274.
9. Kannusamy Pillai C. Pathartha Guna Vilakkam. Chennai: B Rathina Nayakar & Sons; 1939. p. 265-6.
10. Starr F, Starr K, Loope L. Carmona retusa, United States Geological Surveyâ€”Biological Resources; 2003. p. 1-4.
11. Ram P Rastogi, BN Mehrotra. Compendium of indian medicinal plants. Vol. III. (1980-1984), Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Publications & Informations Directorate, New Delhi; 1993. p. 136-7, 260-1.
12. Rimando AM, Inoshiri S, Otsuka H, Kohda H, Yamasaki K, Padolina WG, et al. Screening for mast cell Histamine release inhibitory activity of Philippine. Med Plants Active Constituents of Ehretia Microphyllaâ€“Shoyakugakuzasshi 1987;41(3):242â€“7.
13. De Padua L, Lugod G, Pancho J. Handbook on philippine medicinal plants. Vol. 1. Documentation and Information Section, Office of the Director of Research, UPLB, Philippines1977. p. 21.
14. Quisumbing E. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, Katha Publishing Co, Inc. Philippines; 1978. p. 773.
15. Aarthi I, Anbu JKFH Nazeer Ahamed, Ashwini Anjana, Velpandian V. Effect of Ehretia microphylla Lamk. On stimulation of reproductive function and ovarian folliculogenesis in rats. Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2012;3(3):273â€“80.
16. Penecilla G, Magno C. Antibacterial activity of extracts of twelve common medicinal plants from the Philippines. J Med Plants Res 2011;5(16):3975-81.
17. Chandrappa CP, Govindapa M, Anil Kumar NV. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial property of Carmona retusa (Vahl.) Masam. Int J Pharma Med Biol Sci 2012;1(2):91-8.
18. Divakar CM, Nair GRN. Antiulcer, Antibacterial and spermicidal activities of Salanin. Indian Drugs 2001;38(2):629-32.
19. Mackie, Mac Cartney. Practical Microbiology. Churchill Livingston Publishers; London; 1996. p. 131, 851.
20. Myer, Koshi. Manual of diagnostic procedures in medical microbiology and immunology and serology, Christian Medical College and Hospital. Vellore 1982;72:109.
21. Barry. The Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test: Principles and Practices. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia; 1976.
22. Suresh G, Ramesh B, Kavitha K, Ravichandran NR, Suresh A, Gopalakrishnaan V, et al. Preliminary screening of antibacterial compounds from Palarriver basin flora. J Phytol 2010;2(2):24-9.
23. Kasamota IT, Nakabayasi T, Kida H. Screening of various plant extracts used in Ayurvedic medicine for inhibitory effects on human immune deficiency virus type I (HIV-protease). Phytother Res 1995;9:180-4.
24. Cos P, Vilietinck AJ, Vanden Berghe D, Maes L. Anti-infective potential of natural products: how to develop a stronger in vitro proof-of concept. J Ethanopharmacol 2006;106:290-302.
25. Maluventhan Viji, Sangu Murugesan. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of medicinal plant Cardiopsermum helicacabum Linn. J Phytol 2010;2(1):68â€“77.
26. Erdogrul OT. Antimicrobial activities of some plant extracts used in folklore medicine. Pharm Biol 2002;40:269-73.
27. Parek J, Karathia N, Chandra S. Screening of some traditionally used medicinal plants for potential antibacterial activity. Indian J Pharm Sci 2006;68(6):832-4.