ANTIINFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE: METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS OF CAESALPINIA VOLKENSII AND MAYTENUS OBSCURA IN ANIMAL MODELS
Objective: Inflammation is the reaction to injury of the living tissues. Conventional medication of inflammation is expensive and arguably associated with various severe adverse effects hence the need to develop herbal agents that are effective as alternative. Caesalpinia volkensii and Maytenus obscura are plants that grow in Mbeere County of Eastern region of Kenya. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of C. volkensii and M. obscura plants.
Methods: Experimental animals were divided in to four groups; normal group, diseased negative control group, diseased reference group and diseased experimental groups. Inflammation was inducted into the mice using carrageenan. The experimental groups were treated with leaf extracts of the plants at concentration of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg. Anti-inflammatory activities in rats were compared with diclofenac (15 mg/kg) as the standard conventional drug.
Results: The leaf extracts of C. volkensii reduced the paw edema by between 6.50%-13.42% while the extracts of M. obscura reduced it by between 4.94%-22.36%. Diclofenac reduced the paw edema by between 4.11%-10.47%.
Conclusion: The phytochemical screening results showed that the extracts of C. volkensii had flavonoids, steroids and phenolics while the leaf extracts M. obscura had phenolics, terpenoids and saponins. Flavonoids, saponins and phenolics have been associated with anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, the study has established that the DCM: methanolic leaf extracts of Caesalpinia volkensii and Maytenus obscura are effective in management of inflammation.
2. Amaral JF, Silva MI, Neto MR, Neto PF, Moura BA, de Melo CT, et al. Antinociceptive effect of the monoterpene R-(+)-limonene in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 2007;30:1217-20.
3. Harvey LA, J Batty, J Crosbie, S Poulter, RD Herbert. Arandomized trial assessing the effects of 4 weeks of daily stretching on ankle mobility in patients with spinal cord injuries. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:1340-7.
4. Purcell P, Henry D, Melville G. Diclofenac hepatitis. J Gut 1991;32:1381-5.
5. Fored CM, Ejerblad E, Lindblad P, Fryzek JP, Dickman PW, Signorello LB, et al. Acetaminophen, aspirin, and chronic renal failure. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1801-8.
6. Nguyen HT, Juurlink DN. Recurrent ibuprofen-induced aseptic meningitis. Ann Pharmacother 2004;38:408-10.
7. Wheeler P, Batt ME. Do non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs adversely affect stress fracture healing? Br J Sports Med 2005;39:65-9.
8. Schalage WK, Bulles H, Friedridrichs D, Kuhn M, Teredesai A. Cytokeratin expression patterns in rat respiratory tract as markers of epithelial differentiation in inhalation toxicology. Toxicol Pathol 1999;26:324-43.
9. Khan H, Saeed M, Gilani AH, Muhammad N, Haq IU, Ashraf N. Antipyretic and anticonvulsant activity of Polygonatum verticillatum: comparison of rhizomes and aerial parts. Phytother Res J 2013;27(3):468-71.
10. Vogel HG. Drug discovery and evaluation pharmacological assays. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York; 2002;1408:2-716.
11. Winter CA, Risky EA, Nuss GW. Carragenan-induced Edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for anti-inflammatory drugs. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1962;111:544-7.
12. Bamgbose SOA, Noamesi BK. Studies on cryptolepine inhibition of carrageenan-induced oedema. J Planta Med 1981;42:392-6.
13. Harbone JB. Phytochemical methods: a guide to modern techniques of plants analysis. Chapman & Hal Publishers: London, UK; 1998;3:60-6.
14. Kotake CK. Practical Pharmacognosy. Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi: India; 2000;4:107-11.
15. Zacharopoulos VR, Phillips DM. Vaginal formulations of carrageenan protect mice from herpes simplex virus infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 1997;4:465â€“8.
16. John H, Nodine MD. Chicago: Year Book Medical. Publishers Inc; 1999. p. 492.
17. Marzouk B, Marzouk Z, Haloui E, Fenina N, Bouraoui A, Aouni M. Screening of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Citrullus colocynthisfrom southern Tunisia. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;128:15-9.
18. Morebise O, Fafunso MA, Makinde JM, Olajide OA, Awe EO. Antiinflammatory property of the leaves of Gongronema latifolium. Phytother Res 2002;16:S75-S77.
19. Erdemoglu N, Turan NN, Akkol EK, Sener B, Abacioglu N. Estimation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities on Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. ssp. minus. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;121:318-23.
20. Thomazzi SM, Silva CB, Silveira DCR, Vasconcellos CLC, Lira AF, Cambui EVF. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Bowdichia virgilioides (sucupira). J Ethnopharmacol 2010;127:451-6.
21. Shashank J Levy, I Fishbain B, Broday D. Application of distributed sensor networks for estimating exposures to air pollution in urban areas. Basel. SN; 2013.
22. Victor BO, Caleb OW, Ayodele OS, Samuel BO. Studies on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Tithonia diversifolia leaf extract. J Ethanopharm 2003;90:317-21.
23. Blandizzic C, Ippolito C, Segnanic C, De Giorgio R. Quantitative evaluation of myenteric ganglion cells in normal human left colon: Implications for histopathological analysis. J Cell Tissue Res 2009;336:191-201.
24. Gupta AK, Misra N. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Chamomile capitula in paracetamol intoxicated albino rats. Am J Pharmacol Toxicol 2006;1:17-20.
25. Alcaraz MJ, Ferrandiz ML. Modification of arachdonic metabolism by flavonoids. J Ethnopharmacol 1987;21:209-29.
26. Tapas AR, Sakarkar DM, Kakde RB. Flavonoids as nutraceuticals: a review. Trop J Pharm Res 2008;7:1089-99.
27. Musa AM. Phytochemical and some pharmacological studies of the Indigofera pulchra Willd. PhD Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria; 2008.
28. Mwonjoria JK, Ngeranwa JJ, Kariuki HN, Githinji CG, Sagini MN, Wambugu SN. Ethno medicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of solanum incanum (lin.). Int J Pharmacol Toxicol Sci 2014;2(2):17-20.
29. Ganesh M, Vasudevan M, Kamalakannan K, Kumar AS, Vinoba M, Ganguly S, et al. Antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of pongamia glabra leaf gall extract. Pharmacologyonline 2008;1:497-512.