NEEM BIODIESEL: AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL
Keywords:Neem oil, Transesterification reaction, Pour point
Objective: Fossil fuels are a major source of energy in today’s world but due to the limited availability of fossil fuels and its harmful emissions, it is now very important to shift our focus toward other sources of energy. Biofuels can help us meet this energy requirement. This study is aimed at producing neem biodiesel from neem oil by “transesterification process” using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and studying its various fuel properties.
Methods: First, extraction was done to produce neem oil from its seeds. Free fatty acid content was reduced and transesterification reaction was carried out at temperature of around 55–65°C in the presence of alkali catalyst, NaOH to produce neem biodiesel. Properties of biodiesel produced such as viscosity and flash point were then determined using redwood viscometer, Abel-Pensky apparatus, and their respective methods for other properties.
Results: Produced neem biodiesel showed higher pour point than that of conventional diesel. Viscosity of neem oil was much higher than standards and was greatly reduced when converted to biodiesel using transesterification and biodiesel showed kinematic viscosity of 5.2 cSt at 35°C.
Conclusion: Neem biodiesel produced has many fuel properties close to that of conventional diesel. Furthermore, the biodegradable, non-toxic nature of biodiesel is another reason for considering it as an alternative fuel. As we cannot directly use neem oil in diesel engine due to its high viscosity, so it is needed to convert it into biodiesel so that its properties become comparable to the conventional diesel.
Tiwari S, Verma PC, Tuli PK. Plants as bioreactors for the production of vaccine antigens. Biotechnol Adv 2009;27:449-67.
Bradshaw GB. New soap process. Soap 1942;23-24:69-70.
Axelsson L, Franzén M. Performance of Jatropha Biodiesel Production and its Environmental and Socio-economic Impacts. A Case Study in Southern India; 2010.
Attia NY, Abd El-Aleem IM, Kamel KM, Saliem NS. Biochemical and environmental studies on Neem Leaves and seed. J Biol Chem Environ Sci 2015;10:373-97.
Achten WM, Verchot L, Franken YJ, Mathijs E, Singh VP, Aerts R, et al. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use. Biomass Bioenergy 2008;32:1063-84.
Kumari S, Kaur V, Kumar A, Singh TP. Studies on biodiesel: A plant oil based renewable fuel. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;5:1275-88.
Ma F, Hanna MA. Biodiesel Production: A review. Bioresource Technol 1999;70:1-15.
Bradshaw GB, Meuly WC. Process of Making Pure Soaps, U.S. Patent, No. 2,271,619; 1942.
Van Gerpen JH, Peterson CL, Goering CE. Biodiesel: An Alternative Fuel for Compression Ignition Engines, for presentation at the 2007 Agricultural Equipment Technology Conference Louisville, Kentucky, USA 11-14 February; 2007.
Van Gerpen J. Biodiesel processing and production. Fuel Proc Technol 2005;86:1097-107.
Peterson CL, Reece DL, Hammond BJ, Thompson J, Beck SM. Processing, Characterization and Performance of Eight Fuels from Lipids, ASAE International Winter Meeting, Paper No. 946531; 1994.
Peterson C, Reece D. Emissions characteristics of ethyl and methyl ester of rapeseed oil compared with low sulfur diesel control fuel in a chassis dynamometer test of a pickup truck. Trans Am Soc Agric Eng 1996;39:805-16.
Ali MH, Mashud M, Rubel MR, Ahmad RH. Biodiesel from Neem oil as an alternative fuel for Diesel Engine. Proc Eng 2013;56:625-30.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 ABHISHEK RASTOGI, MOHD. SHABAN, SHIVAM SAXENA,, TEJ PRATAP SINGH
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.