Evaluation of complementary foods from blends of roasted rice and soybean flours
Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the chemical and functional properties of complementary food produced from blends of rice and soybean flours. Methods: Rice and soybean grains were cleaned, de-hulled, roasted, winnowed and milled. The flours were used to formulated 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 rice:soybean complementary food. The various blends of the rice:soybean complementary food were analysed for their proximate composition, vitamin and mineral content, anti-nutrient composition and sensory properties. Results: Moisture, protein, fat, fibre, ash and carbohydrate content of the blends ranged from 6.98-7.87, 5.70-19.15, 4.83-13.76, 0.41-1.39, 0.77-5.52 and 50.09-83.45% respectively. Mineral and vitamin contents of the rice-soybean complementary food blends ranged from 0.88-2.82 mg/100 g for Zn, 1.93-4.15 mg/100 g for Fe, 5.94-12.78 mg/100 g for Ca, 0.35-0.96 mg/100 g for vitamin B1 and 0.49-0.81 mg/100 g for vitamin B2. Bulk density, water absorption capacity and swelling capacity of the samples ranged from 0.83-0.89 g/cm3, 147.75-207.40% and 4.0-6.9 g/g respectively. Protein, fat, ash, mineral and vitamin contents of the rice-soybean complementary food blends showed an increase with increase in soybean addition. Anti-nutrient composition of the complementary food blends showed oxalate, phytate, haemagglutinin and tannin to be within safe levels. Conclusion: Blending of rice with soybean in various ratios for production of complementary food, affected the chemical, functional and sensory properties of the blends. Roasting of the grains before milling were instrumental in reducing the various anti-nutrients that are associated with rice and soybean to a minimum no- risk level.
WHO. Complementary feeding: report of the global consultation, and summary of guiding principles for complementary feeding of the breastfed child. http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/infantfeeding/924154614X/en/ 2002 Accessed on 21st January, 2016.
Monte CM, Giugliani ER. Recommendations for the complementary feeding of the breastfed child. Journal de Pediatria 2004; 80: 131-138.
FAO. Cereal and Grain Legume Seed Processing: Technical Guide. Plant Production and Protection Series No 21, 1991; Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome.
EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/plant/soybean
Nnanyelugo DO, King J, Ene-Obong HN, Ngoddy PO. Seasonal variation and the contribution of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and other legumes to nutrient intakes in Anambra State, Nigeria. Ecol. Food Nutr. 1985; 17: 271-274.
Ndubuaku VO, Uwaegbute AC, Nnanyelugo DO. Flatulence and other discomforts associated with consumption of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) appetite. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 1989; 13(3): 171-181.
Mbata TI, Ikenebomeh MJ, Ezeibe S. Evaluation of mineral content and functional properties of fermented maize (Generic and specific) flour blended with bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L). Afr. J. Food Sci. 2009; 3(4): 107-112.
Gernah DI, Ariahu CC, Ingbian EK. Effects of malting and lactic fermentation on some chemical and functional properties of maize (Zea mays). Am. J. Adv. Food Sci. Technol. 2011; 6: 404-412.
Hallen E, Ibanoglu S, Ainsworth P. Effect of fermented/germinated cowpea flour addition on the rheological and baking properties of wheat flour. J. Food Eng. 2004; 63: 177-184.
El-Adawy TA, Rahma EH, El-Bedawey AA, El-Beltagy AE. Nutritional potential and functional properties of germinated mung bean, pea and lentil seeds. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 2004; 58: 1-13.
Boye J, Fatemeh Z, Alison P. Pulse proteins: processing, characterization, functional properties and applications in food and feed. Food Res. Int. 2010; 43: 414-431.
Solomon M. Nutritive value of three potential complementary foods based on cereals and legumes. African Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences 2005; 5: 1-2.
Ikpeme-Emmanuel CA, Okoi J, Osuchukwu NC. Functional, anti-nutritional and sensory acceptability of taro and soybean based weaning food. Afr. J. Food Sci. 2009; 3(11): 372-377.
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 2010, 18th edition. Gaithersburg, Maryland, U.S.A.
Kirk RS, Sawyer R. Pearsons Composition and Analysis of Foods 1998, 9th edition, Churchill Livingstone Edinburgh, pp 132-137.
Latta M, Eskin M. A simple and rapid colorimetric method for phytate determination. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1990; 28: 1213-1215.
Fasset DN. Oxalate: Toxicants Occurring Naturally in Food. National Academy of Science, Washington, DC, 1973.
Ghandi AP, Srivasta J. Studies on the production of protein isolates from defatted sesame seed flour and their nutritional profile. ASEAN Food J. 2007; 14(3): 175-180.
Ukpabi U, Ndimelu C. Evaluation of the quality of â€˜â€™Garriâ€™â€™ produced in Imo State, Nigeria. Niger. Food J. 1990; 8: 105-110.
Okaka JC, Potter NN. Physicochemical and functional properties of cowpea powders processed to reduce bean flavour. Journal of Food Science, 1979; 44: 1235-1240.
Steel, R. G. and Torrie, J. A. (1980). Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach, 2nd edition. Mc Graw-Hill International, Auckland, pp 5-102.
National Research Council. Recommended dietary Allowance, 10th edition. Washington DC, National Academy Press, 1989.
FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses: Report of the 33rd physical working group on proposed draft of the Guidelines on Formulated Supplementary Foods for Older Infants and Young Children, Ghana and United States, WHO, 2012.
Ijarotimi OS, Oluwalana IB, Ogunedojutimi MO. Nutrient composition, functional, sensory and microbial status of popcorn-based (Zea mays everta) complementary foods enriched with cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) flour. Afr. J. Food, Agric., Nutr. Dev. 2012; 12: 6425-6446.
Madukwe EU, Obizoba IC, Chukwuka OF. Nutrient assessment of processed rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max Merr) flours / groundnut (Arachis hypogea) paste and sensory attributes of their composites. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication, 2013; 3 (8): 4-6.
Baiyeri TG. Evaluation of multimixes and porridges made from maize (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max) and plantain landrace hybrid (Musa AAB) flour for use as complementary food. M.Sc Dissertation, Department of Home Science, Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Nigeria Nsukka, 2004.
Nnam NM. Chemical evaluation of mulitimixes formulated from some local staples for use as complementary foods in Nigeria. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 2000; 55: 255-263.
Ebuchi OAT, Oyewole AC. Effect of cooking and soaking on physical characteristics, nutrient composition and sensory evaluation of indigenous and foreign rice varieties in Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2007; 6 (8): 1016-1020.
Ife II, Emeruwa CH. Nutritional and anti-nutritional characteristics of the larvae of Orycytes monoceros. Agric. Biol. J. North Am. 2011; 46: 2151 â€“ 2189.
Negi A, Boora P, Khetarpaul J. Starch and protein digestibility of
newly released moth bean cultivars: Effect of soaking, dehulling, germination and pressure cooking. Nahrung, 2001; 45: 251-254.
Archana, Sehgal S., Kawatra A. In vitro protein and starch digestibility of pearl millet (Pennisetum gluacum L.) as affected by processing techniques. Nahrung, 2001; 45: 25- 27.
Chandra S, Samsher. Assessment of functional properties of different flours. Afr. J. Agric. Res., 2013; 8 (38): 4849-4852.