IN-SITU GEL SYSTEM FOR OPHTHALMIC PREPARATION
Current research and development strategy focus on development of drug delivery system that makes clinically established drugs to their therapeutic best rather than search for new drug in the traditional hit or miss way.
Ophthalmic products, like most other product in the medical armamentarium are currently undergoing a process termed optimization. New modes of delivering a drug to the eye are being activity explored, ranging from a solid hydrophobic device that is inserted into the ophthalmic cul-de-sac, to conventionally applied dosage from which due to their formulation characteristic markedly increases the drug residence time in the orbit of eye, thus providing drug for absorption for prolonged periods are for absorption for prolonged periods are reducing the frequency of drug administration. 
Poor bioavailability of many drugs from topical ophthalmic preparation limits therapeutic drug delivery. Furthermore treatment of several posterior segment disorders requiring therapeutic intravitreal drug level necessitate repeated injections off drugs due to the short residence time of drug in the vitreous cavity. Substantial effort has been directed towards the development of ocular and intraocular drug delivery of ocular and intraocular drug delivery system that would prolong the drug retention allowing the drug to remain in the contact with ocular milieu for longer duration and thus maximize bioavailability. Beyond the issue of bioavailability, patient compliance and dexterity issue for drug installation are other important consideration that may impact therapeutic drug delivery.
Shell J.W., Ophthalmic drug delivery system drug Dev, Res. 6, 245-261, 1985.
Shell J.W., Ophthalmic drug delivery system â€“ A review J. Toxied, cut &ocular toxied. 1(1) 49-63, 1982.
Robinson J.R., Ocular drug delivery mechanism of corneal drug transport and mucoadhesive delivery system. S.T.P. Pharma 5(12) 839-846, 1989.
Schoenwoald R.D. and Smolen V.F. Drug â€“ absorption analysis form pharmacological data II. Transcorneal diosphasic availability of tropic amide J. Pharm Sci. 60: 1039, 1971.
Waugh Anne and Grant Allison, Ross and willson anatomy and physiology in health and illness, Elsevier publisher, 9th edition, 2004; 106-150.]
ao V, Shyale S. Preparation and evaluation of ocular inserts containing norfloxacin. Turk J Med Sci 2004; 34;230 â€“ 246.
H. E. Kaufman and gasset A.R. Therapeutic soft bandage leuls. Int opthalmol clin 10379, 1970.
Kaufman H.E. Utolia M.H. and Gasset A.R. the medical uses of soft lenses Trans Am Acad opthalmol, otolyngol 73:361, 1971.
Podos S.M. Becker et al. Pilocarpine therapy with dept contact lenses Ann J opthalmol 73 : 336, 1972.
Leadess F.E. Hecht G. et. Al. New polymers in drug delivery. Ann opthalmol 5:513, 1973.
Assef C.f. Weisman R.L. and Podos S.M. Ocular penetration of pilocarpine in primates Ann J opthalmol 75 : 212, 1973.
Lerman S. Davis P. and Jackson W.B. Prolonged release hydrocortisone therapy can J. Ophalmol 4:823, 1972.
Jain R. et al. ion exchange resins for ophthalmic delivery, J. of ocular pharmacology volume 10 numbers, 1994.
Singh K. and Mezei M. liposomal ophthalmic drug delivery system tramcinolene acetonide Int. J. pharm 16, 339-344, 1983.
Gurny R. Boye T. and Ibrahim H. Ocular therapy with nano particulate system for controlled drug delivery J. contr. Rel 2.353 â€“ 360,1985.
Aquavella J. W. Jackson G.K. and Guy L.F. Therapeutic effect of bionite lenses mechanism of action, Ann. Opthalmol 3;1341, 1971.
Sklubalova Z., Katedra farmaceutike techonolies Farmaceutike fakulty Univerzity Karlovy, Haredc Kralove, Cesta Sloved Farm. 2005 Jan; 54(1);4-39(2); 407-413.
Lenaerts, V., Triqueneaux, C. Quarton, M, Reig-Falson, Couvreur, P., 1987. Temperature-dependent rheoogical behavior of Pluronic F â€“ 127 aqueous solutions. Int. J. Pharm. 39, 121 â€“ 127.
Lin H.R., Sing KC, Vong WJ, Dept of Chem. Engg, Southern Taiwan Universith of Technology, Tainan 710, Taiwan Biomacromolecules 2004 Nov-Dec; 5 (6) : 2358-2365.
Authors Fatma A. Ismail, Jintana Napaporn, Jeffrey a., Huges, Gayle A. Brazeau.
T. Ahsan, L. Lottman, F. Harwood, D.Amiel, R. Shah, J. Orthop Res 17, 850-857, 1999.
C. Chen, K. Fishbein, P. Torzilli, A. Hilger, R. Spencer.
Natalie P. praetorius $ Tarun K. Nalndal pp 37-51.
Maria L. Torre, Massimo Faustinil, Klinger M.E.Attilio and Damiele Vigo. Pp81-85.
Hosaka, S.; Ozawa, H., Tanzawa, H.J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 1979,23, 2089.
Maichuk Y.F. Lancet 1975;. 131 : 1
Rajshree Joshi, Dennis H. robinson, Kenneth J. Himmelstein.
Balasubramanyam, J., Kant, S., Pandit J. K; Acta Pharma 2003. 53 (4), 251.
Cohen, S., Lobel, E.., Trevgoda, A; Peled Y.J. control Rel 1997, 44,201.
Lele, B.S. Hoffman, A.S.J. Biomater. Sci polym. Ed. 2000. 11 (12) 1319.
Sultana, Y.; Jha, M.C.; Ali, A.; Aquil M.J. ocue. Pharmacol, Therapy 2004. 20 (4), 363.
Ashok K. Tiwary, Bharti Sapra $ Subheet Jain pp 23-36.
Bharma N. Singh pg 53-63.
Bert O Haglund, Rajshree Joshi and Kanneth J. Himmelstein
Swan, K.c., Arch Ophthal 33 (5); 378-380, 1945.
Green, K and Downs S.J., Invest ophthlmol, 13:316, 1974.
Green, K. and Dowans, invest Opthalmic 33(5); 1115-1220 , 1975
Krishna N. et al and Mitchell B.Am J opthal 59 (5); 860 â€“ 864, 1965.
Chrai S.S. and Tobinson J.R.j. Pharm Sci 63 (8):1218-1223 ; 1974.
Palton T.F. and Robinson J. R. J. Pharma Sci, 64 (8): 1312; 1973.
Greem K Ackerr D.L. Invest ophthal 15:220 , 1974.
Hsive, G.H.; J.A. cheng, C.C. Biomaterials 2001 22 (13), 1763.
Rozier, A. Mazuel, C; Grave, J; Plazonnet, B. Int. J. Pharm 1989, 57;163.
Lindell, K; Engstriom, S. Int J. Pharma 1993, 95, 219.
Suthors Fatma A. Ismail, Jintana Napaporn, Jeffrey A., Huges, Gayle A. Brazeau.
Seig J.W. and Robinson J.R. J. Pharma Sci. 68 (6): 724, 1979.