UNOPERATED TETRALOGY OF FALLOT: A CLINICOPATHOLOGIC STUDY OF A 12 MONTHS CHILD AT GOVERNMENT GENERAL HOSPITAL, KADAPA
Keywords:Tetralogy of fallot, Emergency care, Pulmonary cyanosis, Heart murmurs
Tetralogy of fallot is a congenital cardiac malformation that consists of an interventricular miscommunication. This combination of lesions occurs in three of every 10,000 live births and accounts for 7–10% of all congenital cardiac malformations. It is a condition caused by a combination of defects in all the four heart chambers that are present at birth. These defects affect the structure of heart, cause oxygen poor blood to flow out of the heart and to the rest of the body. Infants and children with TOF usually have blue tinged skin. The prevalence rate of TOF is 3.5% affecting males and females equally. Pneumonia is an infection of lungs that inflames air sacs in one or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus causing cough with phlegm, fever, and chills. It is most common in infants and young children and people with weakened immune system. A 12 months’ female child with this congenital heart defect and pneumonia was discussed in this report. However, most of the children with TOF need surgery, but timings may vary depending on the condition and severity. This is important to note that surgery for TOF is palliative but not curative. This report concludes that there is a need to increase awareness of TOF so as to encourage early diagnosis and therefore promotes better outcomes.
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